Principles and Conceptual Knowledge

  • Shulamit Ramon
Part of the Issues in Mental Health book series (IMH)

Abstract

Normalisation is defined as the principle by which people with a disability have the right to lead a valued ordinary life, based on the belief in their equality as human beings and citizens.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. 1.
    Nirje, B., ‘The Normalisation Principle and Its Human Management Implications’, in Kugel, R. and Wolfensberger, W. (eds), Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded, (Washington: President’s Committee on Mental Retardation, 1969) pp. 255–87.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Wolfensberger, W., ‘Social Role Valorisation: A Proposed New Term for the Principle of Normalisation ’, Mental Retardation, vol. 21, no. 6, 1983, pp. 234–9.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Ryan, J. and Thomas, F., The Politics of Mental Handicap, (London: Free Association Books, 1987) p. 149.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Rothman, D., The Discovery of the Asylum: Social Order and Disorder in the New Republic (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Wing, J.K., ‘Institutionalism in Mental Hospitals’, British Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, vol. 1, pp. 38–51.Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Barton, R., Institutional Neurosis (Bristol: Wright, 1959).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Goffman, I., Asylum (New York: Doubleday, 1961).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Foucault, M., Madness and Civilization (London: Tavistock, 1972); Basaglia, F., Listituzione Negata (Rome: Einaudi, 1968).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    Scheper-Huges, N. and Lovell, A.M. (eds), Psychiatry Inside Out: Selected Writings of Franco Basaglia (New York: Columbia University Press, 1988).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Olshansky, S., ‘Changing Vocational Behaviour Through Normalisation’, in Wolfensberger, W. (ed.), The Principle of Normalisafion in Human Services (Toronto: National Institute of Mental Retardation, 1972).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Basaglia, F., Listituzione Negata, see 8 above. Rotelli, F. ‘Changing Psychiatric Services in Italy ’, in Ramon, S. (ed.), Psychiatry in Transition (London: Pluto Press, 1988) pp. 182–90; Del Giudice, G., Evaristo, P. and Reali, M., ‘How Can Mental Hospitals Be Phased Out?’ in S. Ramon, ibid., pp. 199–207.Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Williams, P. and Tyne, A., ‘Exploring Values as the Basis for Service Development’, in Towell, D. (ed.) An Ordinary Life in Practice (London: King’s Fund Publications, 1987) pp. 23–31.Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Wolfensberger, W., ‘The Definition of the Principle of Normalisation’, see 10 above.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Grarnsci, A., Selections from the Prison Notebooks (New York: International Publishers, 1971); Castel, R., Castle, F. and Lovell, A.M., The Psychiatric Society (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982).Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bank-Mikkleson, N.E., ‘A Metropolitan Area in Denmark: Copenhagen’, in Kugel, R. and Wolfensberger, W. (eds), Changing Patterns in Residential Services for the Mentally Retarded, see 10 above, pp. 227–54.Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Salvi, E. and Cecchini, M., ‘Children with Handicaps in Ordinary Schools’, in Ramon, S. (ed.), Psychiatry in Transition, see 11 above, pp. 138–46.Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Wolfensberger, W., ‘Normalising Activation for the Profoundly Retarded and/or Multiply Handicapped’, see 10 above, p. 127.Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    Oliver, M. The Politics of Disablement (London: Macmillan, 1969). For an interesting discussion of these issues see: Stainton, T., ‘The Conceptualisation of Disability: The Dilemma of Difference ’, paper presented at the London School of Economics Philosophy, Politics and Literature Seminar, 6 March 1990.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Perske, R., ‘The Risk of Dignity’, see 10 above, pp. 194–206.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Laing, RD., Self and Others (London: Tavistock, 1971).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Timms, N., Values in Social Work: An Inquiry (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1984).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Wolfensberger, W., ‘The Definition of the Principle of Normalisation’, see 10 above, pp. 6–9.Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Race, D., ‘Normalisation: Theory and Practice’, in Malin: N. (ed.) Community Care Reassessed (London: Croorn Helm, 1987) pp. 62–79.Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    O’Brien, J., Against Pain as a Tool in Professional Work on People with Severe Disability (London: Kings’s Fund Centre, 1988).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    People First of Washington. Officer Handbook. (Salem, Oregon: People First International, 1984).Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Hinchbold, D. and Harris, N. (ed.), The PatientsCase: Views from Experience: Living Inside and Out of a Psychiatric Hospital (Rossendale: Community Psychiatric Nurses Association, 1988). See also 11 above.Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    Soyer, P., ‘The Right to Fail’, in McDermott, R. (ed.), Self Determination (London: Routledge & Kegan Paul, 1975).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Perske, R., ‘The Dignity of Risk’, see 10 above, pp. 194–206.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tranchina, P. and Basaglia, F. (eds), Autobiografia di un Movimento 1961–1979 (Unione Province Italiane, Regione Toscana, Ammistrazione Provinciale di Arezzo, 1979).Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Freire, P., The Pedagogy of the Oppressed (London: Lawrence & Wishart, 1972).Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    O’Brien, J., Framework for Accomplishment (Decatur, Georgia: Responsive Systems Associates, 1988).Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    For a recent study see: Howe, D., The ConsumersView of Family Therapy (Aldershot: Gower, 1989).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    See 7 above, and Mead, G.H., Mind, Self and Society (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1934); Becker, H. (ed.), Outsiders (Glencoe: The Free Press, 1962); Scheff, T., Labelling Mental Illness (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1975); Goffman, I., Stigma (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1963).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Pateman, C., The Disorder of Women (Oxford: Policy Press, 1989); Ungerson, C., Policy is Personal (London: Tavistock, 1987).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Leonard, P., Ideology and Personality: Towards a Materialist Understanding of the Individual (London: Macmillan, 1984).Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Breakwell, G.M., Coping with Threatened Identities (London: Methuen, 1986); Breakwell, G.M., (ed.) Threatened Identities (Chichester: Wiley, 1983); Pearlin, L.I. and Schooler, C., ‘The Structure of Coping’, Journal of Health and Social Behaviour, vol. 19, 1978, pp. 2–21.Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Rosehan, D.L. and Seligman, M.E.P., Abnormal Psychology (New York: Norton, 1984). See also Leonard’s concept of resistance in 35 above.Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    Garmezy, N. and Rutter, M. (ed.), Stress, Coping and Development in Children (New York: McGraw-Hill, 1983).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Golan, N., Being in Transition (New York: Columbia University Press, 1982).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Ramon, S., ‘The Relevance of Symbolic Interaction Perspectives to the Conceptual and Practice Construction of Leaving a Psychiatric Hospital’, Social Work and Social Science Review, forthcoming.Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Henry, P., ‘Towards a Rehabilitative Psychiatry, see 11 above, pp. 82–9.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hudson, B. and MacDonald, E., Behavioural Social Work (London: Macmillan, 1986); Trower, P. (ed.), Handbook of Social Skills Training (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1986).Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Mugny, G., The Power of Minorities (London: Academic Press, 1982); Austin, W.G. and Worchel, S. (eds), The Social Psychology of Intergroup Relations (Monterey, Cal.: Brooks/Cole, 1979).Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Rokeach, M., Beliefs, Attitudes and Values (San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 1978).Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Sontag, S., Illness as a Metaphor (New York: Random House, 1979); Nolan, C., Under the Eye of The Clock (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson, 1987); Brown, C., My Left Foot (London: Mandarin, 1987).Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Atkinson, D., Someone to Turn To (British Institute of Mental Handicap, 1989).Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Scott, R.A., The Making of Blind Men: A Study of Socialization (New York: Sage Foundation, 1969); McCord, W.T., Prom Theory to Reality: Obstacles to the Implementation of the Normalisation Principle in Human Services’, Mental Retardation, vol. 20, no. 6, 1982, pp. 247–53.Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Habermas, J., Legitimation Crisis (London: Heinemann, 1973); Gleick, J., Chaos: Making of a New Science (London: Heinemann, 1989).Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Basaglia, F., ‘Peacetime Crimes: Technicians of Practical Knowledge’, see 9 above, p. 146.Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Peters, T.J. and Waterman, R.H., In Search of Excellence: Lessons from Americas Bestrun Companies (New York: Harper & Row, 1984).Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Fagence, M.T., Citizen Participation in Planning (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1977); Rossi, P. and Dentler, R., The Politics of Urban Renewal (New York: Free Press, 1961); McEwen, J. (ed.), Participation in Health (London: Croom Helm, 1983).Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    See 11 above.Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Stark, J.A., McGee, J.J. and Menolascino, F.J., International Handbook of Community Services for the Mentally Retarded (Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum, 1984) pp. 107–30; Mansell, J., ‘Training for Service Development’, see 12 above, pp. 129–40. See also 31 above, section on management skills in chapter 3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Shulamit Ramon 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Shulamit Ramon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations