The Ba‘th in Power: The Political and Ideological Setting

  • Amatzia Baram
Part of the St Antony’s/Macmillan Series book series


In the political, social and economic spheres the infant regime embarked on a policy of ‘stick and carrot’ or, as it came to be known among the populace of Iraq, al-tarhib wal-targhib (‘intimidation and attraction’). Ba‘th coercion on both the Shi‘a and the Kurds was unprecedented in the history of modern Iraq; and for the Shi‘a, after the rise in oil revenues following the Arab-Israeli war in 1973, the inducements of the carrot policy were likewise unprecedented.


Arab World Arab State Iraqi People Arab Regime Nationalist Fervour 
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  1. 1.
    For example, al-Hayat, 22, 26, 27, 28 June; 1, 11, 12 July; 2, 4, 20 August 1969; al-Nahar, 5 July, 31 August, 26 September 1969; Nida al-Watan, 26 June, 21 July 1969; al-Jarida, 15 June, 16, 28, 30 August, 18 September 1969; al-‘Amal (Beirut), 8 August 1969; al-Thawra, (hence: Th); al-Jumhuriyya (hence: Jum), 8 May, 12–13 August, 29 September 1969; 8–25 February, 24 March 1977; Edith and E. F. Penrose, Iraq, International Relations and National Development (London and Boulder, 1978), pp. 373–4; Saddam husayn warith al-shah (Munazzamat al-‘Amal al-Islami, Tehran, 1981); Tariq al-Thawra (Tehran) no. 25, Rajab, 1402; al-Dawa Chronicle (London), no. 4, August 1980; no. 10, February 1981; no. 22, February 1982; no. 30, October 1982; no. 37, May 1983; no. 38, June 1983; no. 39, July 1983; no. 40, August 1983; Imam (The Iranian Embassy in London), April–May 1982; al-Jihad (Tehran), 6 September 1982; Impact International, 25 April–8 May 1980. Alif Ba, 16 April 1980, p. 15. ‘A. Najaf, al-Shahed al-shahid (Tehran, Jama‘at al-‘ulama al-mujahidin, 1981), pp. 12, 27, 45; Amnesty International News Release (London), 10 March, 12 June, 1980; Amnesty International, Report and Recommendations … to the Government of the Republic of Iraq, 22–28 January 1983, pp. 21,39; Sawt al-Iraq, September 1983; al-Nahar (Beirut, 25 June 1983); Iraq’s FM Tariq ‘Aziz confirming executions, Reuter, from Kuwait, 20 July 1983; al-Shira‘ (Beirut), 1 August 1986. There are no reliable figures as to the total number of Shi‘i deportees. According to Iranian sources, it rose in 1989 to close to five hundred thousands (including forty thousand Kurds). See Tehran Times, 28 February 1989, p. 1.Google Scholar
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Copyright information

© Amatzia Baram 1991

Authors and Affiliations

  • Amatzia Baram
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of the History of the Middle EastHaifa UniversityIsrael

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