The Chinese Room Argument: An Exercise in Computational Philosophy of Mind
By ‘Computational Philosophy of Mind’ we mean the overlap area between ‘artificial intelligence’ (AI) and philosophy of mind. This overlap area is attracting increasing interest from a number of philosophers and AI researchers. The origins of the overlap area can be traced back to Turing’s seminal paper in 1950,1 and to five of the nine objections that Turing himself raised to his own reformulation of the question, ‘Can machines think?’ The five objections are: ‘The Argument from Informality of Behaviour’, ‘The Argument from Consciousness’, ‘The Argument from Continuity in the Nervous System’, ‘The Mathematical Objection’, and ‘Lady Lovelace’s Objection’. Turing’s reformulation of the question, called the ‘Imitation Game’, and the various objections he envisages, are well documented, and we shall not deal with them here. The important point is that Searle has recently expressed criticisms of artificial intelligence (the ‘strong’ variety) which embody all five of these objections, and his criticism can therefore be regarded as modern expressions of these objections. Our aim is to evaluate critically Searle’s views and put them in the context of a developing area of philosophy.
KeywordsAcetylcholine Defend Clarification Concession
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- J. Haugeland (ed.), Mind Design, (MIT Press, 1981), pp. 282–306, from which page references are taken; and inGoogle Scholar
- D.R. Hofstadter and D.C. Dennet (eds), The Mind’s I: Fantasies and Reflections on Self and Soul, (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1981).Google Scholar
- 8.W.J. Hutchins, Machine Translation: Past, Present, Future, (Chichester: Ellis Horwood, 1988).Google Scholar
- 9.A. Narayanan, On Being a Machine (Volume 1): Formal Aspects of Artificial Intelligence, (Chichester: Ellis Horwood, 1988).Google Scholar
- 11.Ibid., reprinted in J.R. Anderson (ed.), Minds and Machines (Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964), p. 48.Google Scholar
- 13.A. Narayanan, ‘What is it Like to be a Machine?’, in S. Torrance (ed.), The Mind and the Machine: Philosophical Aspects of Artificial Intelligence (Chichester: Ellis Horwood, 1984).Google Scholar
- 15.J. R. Searle, ‘Minds and Brains Without Programs’ in C. Blakemore and S. Greenfield (eds), Mindwaves, (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1987), pp. 213–4.Google Scholar