Advertisement

Detention and Violence: Beyond Victimology

  • Don Foster
  • Donald Skinner
Chapter

Abstract

Nobody can doubt that the purely quantitative incidence of detention in terms of security legislation and emergency regulations has increased significantly in the past few years. Accurate aggregate figures are notoriously difficult to gain, since the Minister of Law and Order only reports numbers of those detained for more than 30 days under Emergency Regulations, does not release figures on detention in the ‘independent states’, and sometimes fails to give details of detention under all of the various provisions of the Internal Security Act 1982. Despite this a reasonable picture may be gained from a combination of official figures and data gathered by the Detainees’ Parents’ Support Committee.1 Including all forms of detention, roughly 50 000 people have been held by the state during the three-year period January 1985 to December 1987. Since the overall figure of all detentions since 1960, when this form of repression was first deployed, must be in the order of 100 000 people, it appears that the number of detentions during these three years roughly equals to the total of detentions during the preceding 25 years. In 1986 alone close on 25 000 people were estimated to have been detained.

Keywords

Political Violence Sensory Deprivation African National Congress South African Medical Journal Psychological Sequela 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 2.
    D. H. Foster, D. Davis and D. Sandler, Detention and Torture in South Africa ( Cape Town: David Philip, 1987 ).Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    A. S. Matthews and R. C. Albino, ‘The Permanence of the Temporary–an Examination of the 90-day and 180-day Detention Laws’, South African Law Journal, 83 (1966) pp. 16–43.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    A. S. Roux, ‘Sensory and Perceptual Deprivation’, The South African Psychologist, Monograph no. 69 (1967).Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    See South Africa, Report of the Commission of Inquiry into Security Legislation, RP 90/1981 (The ‘Rabie Report’), (Cape Town: 1982);Google Scholar
  5. C. J. R. Dugard et al. (eds), Report on the Rabie Report ( Centre for Applied Legal Studies, University of the Witwatersrand: 1982 ).Google Scholar
  6. 10.
    R. Rudolph, Security, Terrorism and Torture ( Cape Town: Juta, 1984 ).Google Scholar
  7. 11.
    D. Fine, ‘Re-examining the Validity of Detainee Evidence: a Psycholegal Approach’, South African Journal of Criminal Law and Criminology, 8 (1984) pp. 156–94;Google Scholar
  8. S. K. Parmamand and C. Vorster, ‘South Africa’s State Security Legislation: Exit Section 6’, Journal of Contemporary Roman Dutch Law, 147 (1984) pp. 180–99;Google Scholar
  9. J. Riekert, ‘The Silent Scream: Detention without Trial, Solitary Confinement and Evidence in South African “Security Trials”’, South African Journal on Human Rights 1 (1985) pp. 245–50; Rudolph, Security, Terrorism and Torture.Google Scholar
  10. 12.
    M. D. Solomon (ed.), Sensory Deprivation ( Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard UP, 1961 );Google Scholar
  11. J. A. Vernon, Inside the Black Box ( New York: Clarkson Potter, 1963 );Google Scholar
  12. J. P. Zubeck, Sensory Deprivation: Fifteen Years of Research ( New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1969 ).Google Scholar
  13. 14.
    P. Suedfeld, Restricted Environmental Stimulation ( New York: Wiley, 1980 ).Google Scholar
  14. 18.
    J. Levin, ‘Torture without Violence: Clinical and Ethical Issues for Mental Health Workers in the Treatment of Detainees’, South African Journal on Human Rights, 2 (1986) pp. 177–85;Google Scholar
  15. J. Riekert, ‘The Silent Scream’; L. J. West, ‘Effects of Isolation on the Evidence of Detainees’, in A. N. Bell and R. Mackie (eds), Detention and Security Legislation in South Africa ( Durban: University of Natal, 1985 ) pp. 69–80.Google Scholar
  16. 20.
    M. E. P. Seligman, Helplessness ( San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1975 ).Google Scholar
  17. 23.
    K. Solomons, ‘Contribution to a Theory of the Dynamic Mechanisms in the Post-traumatic Stress Disorder in South African Political Detainees’, Psychology in Society, 11 (1988) pp. 18–30.Google Scholar
  18. 25.
    G. Friedman, ‘Counselling Ex-detainees: Themes, Problems and Strategies’, in Mental Health in Transition: OASSSA Second National Conference Proceedings (1987) pp. 63–76;Google Scholar
  19. G. Straker, ‘The Continuous Traumatic Stress Syndrome’, Psychology in Society, 8 (1987) pp. 48–78.Google Scholar
  20. 28.
    K. Gibson, ‘Civil Conflict, Stress, and Children’, Psychology in Society, 8 (1987) pp. 4–26.Google Scholar
  21. 31.
    P. Suedfeld, ‘Solitary Confinement as a Rehabilitative Technique–Reply to Lucas’, Australian and New Zealand Journal of Criminology, 11 (1978), pp. 106–12;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. P. Suedfeld, C. Rominez, J. Deaton, and G. Baker-Brown, ‘Reactions and Attributes of Prisoners in Solitary Confinement’, Criminal Justice and Behaviour, 9 (1982), pp. 302–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 33.
    S. Moscovici, Social Influence and Social Change ( London: Academic, 1976 ).Google Scholar
  24. 34.
    H. Lewin, Bandiet (London: Barrie & Jenkins, 1974 );Google Scholar
  25. J. Cronin, Inside ( Johannesburg: Ravan, 1983 );Google Scholar
  26. I. Naidoo, Island in Chains ( Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1982 );Google Scholar
  27. B. Breytenbach, The True Confessions of an Albino Terrorist ( New York: Farrar, 1983 );Google Scholar
  28. R. First, 117 Days ( Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1965 );Google Scholar
  29. A. Sachs, Jail Diary ( London: Harvill Press, 1967 );Google Scholar
  30. Q. Jacobsen, Solitary in Johannesburg ( London: M. Joseph, 1973 );Google Scholar
  31. M. Pheto, And Night Fell ( London: Allison & Busby, 1983 );Google Scholar
  32. F. Chikane, No Life of My Own ( Braamfontein: Skotaville, 1988 ).Google Scholar
  33. 39.
    S. Cronje, Witness in the Dark ( London: Christian Action, 1964 );Google Scholar
  34. H. Bernstein, South Africa: the Terrorism of Torture ( London: Christian Action, 1972 );Google Scholar
  35. United Nations, Maltreatment and Torture of Prisoners in South Africa ( New York: Report of the UN Special Committee on Apartheid, 1973 );Google Scholar
  36. Amnesty International, Report on Torture (New York: Farrar, 1975); Detainees’ Parents’ Support Committee, Memorandum on Security Police Abuses of Political Detainees ( Johannesburg: DPSC, 1982 );Google Scholar
  37. Catholic Institute for International Relations, Torture in South Africa ( London: Catholic Institute 1982 );Google Scholar
  38. Christian Institute, Torture in South Africa? (Braamfontein, 1977);Google Scholar
  39. Lawyers Committee for Human Rights, The War Against Children ( New York: Lawyers’ Committee, 1986 );Google Scholar
  40. V. Brittain and A. S. Minty, Children of Resistance ( London: Kliptown Books, 1988 ).Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    D. Foster and D. Sandler, A Study of Detention and Torture in South Africa: Preliminary Report ( Institute of Criminology: University of Cape Town, 1985 ).Google Scholar
  42. 46.
    D Skinner and L. Swartz, ‘The Consequences for the Preschool Child of a Parent’s being Detained’, Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines, 30 (1989), pp. 243–59.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. 49.
    L. Birns (ed.), The End of Chilean Democracy ( New York: Seaburg Press, 1974 ).Google Scholar
  44. 50.
    A. Boraine, ‘Wham, Sham or Scam? Security Management, Upgrading and Resistance in a South African Township’, Unpublished African Seminar paper, Centre for African Studies, University of Cape Town, 1988; W. Cobbett and R. Cohen (eds), Popular Struggles in South Africa ( London: James Currey, 1988 ).Google Scholar
  45. 51.
    S. Chavkin, The Murder of Chile ( New York: Everest House, 1982 ).Google Scholar
  46. 52.
    S. Valenzuela, The Breakdown of Democratic Regimes ( Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press, 1983 ).Google Scholar
  47. 58.
    S. Reicher, ‘Review Essay on M. Billig: Arguing and Thinking’, British Journal of Social Psychology, 27 (1988) pp. 283–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© N. Chabani Manganyi and André du Toit 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Don Foster
  • Donald Skinner

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations