The Cuban and Other Withdrawals from Angola (1988– )

  • Alan James
Part of the Studies in International Security book series (SIS)


When Portugal finally left Angola in 1975, three guerrilla movements were competing for control of the whole country. At the instigation of the Soviet Union, and with her logistic and financial support, Cuba sent about 20,000 troops to support the left-wing MPLA group, and in the following year it came out formally on top. However, the South African-supported Unita remained in control of about one-third of Angola, and the civil war rumbled on. To provide the government with much-needed assistance of various sorts, the Cubans remained, and a decade or so later were reported to have doubled in number.


African National Congress Military Officer Guerrilla Movement Retaliatory Measure Pressing Mediator 
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Further Reading

  1. Gerald J. Bender, ‘Peacemaking in Southern Africa: the Luanda—Pretoria tug-of-war’, Third World Quarterly, 11 (2) (April 1989).Google Scholar
  2. G. R. Berridge, ‘Diplomatic Procedure and the Angola/Namibia Accords, 1988’, International Affairs, 65 (2) (Summer 1989).Google Scholar
  3. S. Neil MacFarlane, ‘The Soviet Union and Southern African Security’, Problems of Communism, XXXVIII (2–3) (March–June 1989).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© International Institute for Strategic Studies 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alan James
    • 1
  1. 1.University of KeeleUK

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