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Defence Policy I: Early Developments

  • Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema

Abstract

One of the important prerequisites to analyse any country’s security problems is the identification of threats emanating either from external sources or from within. The operative military doctrine and the existing force postures are often designed to meet the perceived threats despite the unresolved controversy whether the doctrine guides the evolution of force posture or whether the converse is true. However, the primary function of a military doctrine is to maximise the effectiveness of a state’s military capabilities in support of national objectives.1 Not only are the national strategic objectives invariably devised by the country’s ruling elite in consultation with the civil and military bureaucracies in almost all the Third World countries, but interpreting threats to the security of a state is also their prerogative. Thus it is not surprising that often the threats to their survival are interpreted as threats directed against the survival or physical security of the countries under their rule. However, the case of Pakistan has been slightly different. Despite the domination of Panjabi and refugee upper-middle-class elites with their strong anti-Indian orientations, the differences of opinion over priorities (defence, economic development, domestic political system, and foreign policies) have consistently been resolved in favour of defence-orientated foreign policies by almost all prominent political parties and pressure groups somewhat unanimously.

Keywords

Armed Force Muslim Country Defence Policy Repair Facility Defence Minister 
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Notes

  1. 1.
    See Paul R. Viotti’s ‘Introduction: Military Doctrine’ in Comparative Defence Policy, edited by Frank B. Horton III, Anthony C. Rogerson and Edward L. Warner III (Baltimore; The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1974), pp. 190–2.Google Scholar
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    For detailed analysis see ‘Threat Perception and the Armament-Tension Dilemma’ by David J. Singer in Journal of Conflict Resolution, Vol.11, No. 1, March 1958, pp. 90–105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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    Robert Jervis, Perception and Misperception in International Politics (New Jersey: Princeton University Press, 1976), pp. 48–9.Google Scholar
  6. 9.
    Literature on the use of force is sizable. It is not necessary to mention here all the books and articles on the topic. However, some of those books and articles which provide sufficient insight are listed here. See The Use of Force in International Relations, edited by F.S. Northedge (London: Faber and Faber Limited, 1974);Google Scholar
  7. The Use of Force, edited by Robert J. Art and Kenneth N. Waltz (Boston: Little, Brown, 1971);Google Scholar
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  12. 11.
    For an interesting discussion of the concept of national security see ‘The place and role of defence experts in national security’ by Syed Imtiaz Hussain Bokhari in Strategic Studies, Vol. V, No. 1, Autumn 1981, pp. 33–47.Google Scholar
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    See M. Rafique Afzal, Selected Speeches of the Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah (Lahore: Research Society of Pakistan, 1976), third impression, pp. 423–39.Google Scholar
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  15. 16.
    See ‘Pakistan’s Defence Policy’ by Hasan Askari Rizvi in Pakistan Horizon, Vol. XXXVI, No. 1, 1983, p. 36. 17.Google Scholar
  16. While almost all books covering the creation of Pakistan do have sections on communal strife, the following books give a comprehensive picture of the situation: Sir Francis Tuker, While Memory Serves (London: Cassell and Company Ltd., 1950);Google Scholar
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  21. 19.
    The first ordnance factory of Pakistan became operational in 1951. See Hasan- Askari Rizvi, ‘Pakistan’ in Arms Production in Developing Countries, edited by James Evertt Katz (Toronto: Lexington Books, 1984), p. 265.Google Scholar
  22. 24.
    See Aslam Siddiqui, Pakistan Seeks Security (Lahore: Longmans, Green, 1960), pp. 44–7.Google Scholar
  23. 27.
    See S.S. Khera, India’s Defence Problems (New Delhi: Orient Longmans, 1968), pp. 24–5.Google Scholar
  24. 28.
    Hasan Askari Rizvi, The Military and Politics in Pakistan (Lahore: Progressive Publishers, 1976), p. 33.Google Scholar
  25. 39.
    Richard Symonds, The Making of Pakistan (London: 1950), p. 79.Google Scholar
  26. 40.
    Connell, op. cit., p. 928. Also see Khera, op. cit., p. 35. Also see Lt. Gen. M. Attiqur Rahman, Our Defence Cause (London: White Lion Publishers Limited, 1976), pp. 25–6.Google Scholar
  27. 43.
    See Fazal Muqeem Khan, op. cit., p. 29. Also see Stephen P. Cohen, The Pakistan Army (New Delhi: Himalayan Books, 1984), p. 17.Google Scholar
  28. Also see Aslam Siddiqi, A Path For Pakistan (Karachi: Pakistan Publishing House, 1964), p. 74. Also see Rizvi op. cit., p. 32.Google Scholar
  29. 58.
    See Eugene K. Keefe’s chapter on ‘National Security’ in Pakistan: A Country Study, edited by Richard F. Nyrop (Washington D.C.: US Government Printing Office, 1984, fifth edition), p. 265.Google Scholar
  30. 109.
    Many writers, Indian, Pakistani and others, have written that a few Pakistani soldiers were unofficially involved with the tribesmen. See Prithvi Nath Kaul Bamzai, Kashmir and Power Politics: From Lake Success to Tashkent (Delhi: Metropolitan Book Co., 1966), p. 129. Also see M.C. Chagla Kashmir 1947–1965 (New Delhi: Publication Division, Ministry of Information and Broadcasting, Government of India, 1965).Google Scholar
  31. Also see Maj. Gen. Akbar Khan, Raiders in Kashmir (Karachi: National Book Foundation, 1970), pp. 1–98;Google Scholar
  32. Sheikh Mohammed Abdullah, Attish-e-Chinar (in Urdu), an autobiography (Lahore: Chaudhury Academy, 1985), pp. 402–60; Maj. Gen. Fazal Maqeem Kahn, op. cit., pp. 94–5.Google Scholar
  33. Also see Maj. Gen. M. Skbar Khan’s interview with Brig. A.R. Siddiqui in The Defence Journal, Vol. XI, Nos. 6–7, 1985, pp. 16–20; Lars Blinkenberg, op. cit., pp. 108–9. Also see William C. Johnston, op. cit., p. 314. The Indian argument accusing Pakistan of involvement in tribal invasion has been quoted by many authors as well. For example, see Josef Korbel, op. cit., pp. 104–5. Also see Muhammad Zafrullah Khan, op. cit., p. 149. Also see M.M.R. Khan, op. cit., pp. 86–7.Google Scholar
  34. 122.
    See Brig. Gulzar Ahmed, Pakistan Meets Indian Challenge (Rawalpindi: Al Mukhtar Publishers, 1967), pp. 59–60.Google Scholar
  35. 135.
    Ayub Khan mentions that when he took over as Adjutant General he realised that there were some 50 000 men of varying military quality in the Azad forces. Similarly Sardar Ibrahim Khan also mentions in his book that his government was supported by roughly 30 000 voluntary men and the number kept on rising. See Mohammad Ayub Khan, op. cit., p. 31; Sardar Ibrahim Khan The Kashmir Saga (Lahore: Rippon Press, 1965), pp. 86–100.Google Scholar
  36. 175.
    See Davis B. Bobrow, Components of Defence Policy (Chicago: Rand Mc Nally Company, 1965), pp. 8–9.Google Scholar
  37. 176.
    For a detailed study of defence policy and strategy’s compromises see E.J. Kingston-McCloughry, Defence Policy and Strategy (New York: Frederick A. Praeger, 1960), pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  38. 213.
    See William J. Barnds, ‘Pakistan’s Foreign Policy: Shifting Opportunities and Constraints’ in Pakistan: The Long View, edited by Lawrence Ziring, Ralph Brabanti and W. Howard Wriggins (Darham, N.C. Duke University Press, 1977), p. 370.Google Scholar
  39. 215.
    See ‘Pakistan’s Growing Stature’ by Qutabuddin Aziz in Eastern World, Vol. 14, No. 10, October 1949, p. 15.Google Scholar
  40. 221.
    Ibid. Also see Khalid B. Sayeed, The Political System of Pakistan (Boston: Houghton Mifflin Company, 1967), p. 284.Google Scholar
  41. 259.
    See S.M. Burke, Mainsprings of Indian and Pakistani Foreign Policies (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1975), p. 121.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema
    • 1
  1. 1.Quaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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