Defence Policy I: Early Developments

  • Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema


One of the important prerequisites to analyse any country’s security problems is the identification of threats emanating either from external sources or from within. The operative military doctrine and the existing force postures are often designed to meet the perceived threats despite the unresolved controversy whether the doctrine guides the evolution of force posture or whether the converse is true. However, the primary function of a military doctrine is to maximise the effectiveness of a state’s military capabilities in support of national objectives.1 Not only are the national strategic objectives invariably devised by the country’s ruling elite in consultation with the civil and military bureaucracies in almost all the Third World countries, but interpreting threats to the security of a state is also their prerogative. Thus it is not surprising that often the threats to their survival are interpreted as threats directed against the survival or physical security of the countries under their rule. However, the case of Pakistan has been slightly different. Despite the domination of Panjabi and refugee upper-middle-class elites with their strong anti-Indian orientations, the differences of opinion over priorities (defence, economic development, domestic political system, and foreign policies) have consistently been resolved in favour of defence-orientated foreign policies by almost all prominent political parties and pressure groups somewhat unanimously.


Armed Force Muslim Country Defence Policy Repair Facility Defence Minister 
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  1. 1.
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    See S.M. Burke, Mainsprings of Indian and Pakistani Foreign Policies (Karachi: Oxford University Press, 1975), p. 121.Google Scholar

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© Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pervaiz Iqbal Cheema
    • 1
  1. 1.Quaid-i-Azam UniversityIslamabadPakistan

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