Sound Transmission Fundamentals
The science of acoustics involves the study and practical application of sound transmission in solid and fluid media. Although the subject is one of considerable scope, as figure 1.1 illustrates, our interest will lie particularly in applications involving sound transmission in the sea and in its underlying sediment layers and rock strata. Sound transmission is the single most effective means of directing energy transfer over long distances in seawater. Neither radio-wave nor optical propagation is effective for this purpose, since the former, at all but the lowest usable frequencies, attenuates rapidly in the conducting salt water and the latter is subject to scattering by suspended material in the sea. Underwater acoustics is thus a topic of extreme importance in military and commercial applications.
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