The Arrival of the Dutch: Jacob Mahu and Olivier van Noort (1598–1601)
The United Provinces of the Netherlands were born out of war, a struggle which was fought first of all, largely for nationalistic and religious motives, to wrest control of land from Spain. It was to last from the first abortive rising in 1568, to the signing of the Treaty of Münster in 1648 which recognised Dutch independence. But in 1572 the successes of the Sea-Beggars, to be followed in 1581 with the formal renunciation of allegiance to Philip II of Spain, were already an augury of the final, if long awaited, total victory. Moreover, they indicated the emergence of a powerful maritime force that would soon extend its activities throughout the globe. In the 1580s, following the unification of the crowns of Spain and Portugal, restrictions imposed on Dutch trade with the Iberian Peninsula encouraged this expansion, by prompting the search farther afield for vital commodities such as salt and spices. This expansion of the area of trade, and conflict, was especially inspired by the first of Philip’s arrests of Dutch ships in Iberian ports in 1585.
KeywordsMaize Europe Foam Shipping Amid
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