How Competitive Forces Shape Strategy

  • Michael E. Porter


The essence of strategy formulation is coping with competition. Yet it is easy to view competition too narrowly and too pessimistically. While one sometimes hears executives complaining to the contrary, intense competition in an industry is neither coincidence nor bad luck.


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  1. 2.
    Theodore Levitt, ‘Marketing Myopia’, reprinted as an HBR Classic, September–October 1975, p. 26.Google Scholar

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© Macmillan Publishers Limited 1989

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  • Michael E. Porter

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