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Striving to Become ‘Number 1’: Japanese Foreign Policy, 1945 to the Present

  • William R. Nester

Abstract

Ever since Commodore Perry and his ‘black ships’ dragged Japan into the world economy in 1854, Japanese governments have been obsessed with achieving four inter-related foreign policy goals. The first has been to carve out a niche in the international system large enough to ensure Japan’s economic and military security. Although Japan was self-sufficient before joining the world economy, its dependence on, and vulnerability to cut-offs of, foreign markets, raw materials and technology has deepened steadily since then. Tokyo has continually striven to reduce the vulnerability that accompanies dependence on the world economy.

Keywords

Foreign Policy Japanese Government Asian Development Bank Diplomatic Relation Defence Spending 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 12.
    Shigeru Yoshida, Foreign Affairs, 1951.Google Scholar
  2. 25.
    Nixon also threatened to invoke the ‘Trading with the Enemy Act’ against American traders if Japan did not follow his policies. Bergsten, Foreign Affairs, Spring 1982, p. 1059.Google Scholar
  3. 53.
    Chalmers Johnson, ‘The Patterns of Japanese Relations with China’, Pacific Affairs, Autumn 1986, p. 405.Google Scholar
  4. 63.
    Fred Bergsten, ¡Foreign Affairs, spring 1982, p. 1060.Google Scholar
  5. 70.
    William L. Brooks and Robert M. Orr, Jr., ‘Japan’s Foreign Economic Assistance’, Asian Survey, March 1985, pp. 322–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© William R. Nester 1990

Authors and Affiliations

  • William R. Nester
    • 1
  1. 1.School of Oriental and African StudiesUniversity of LondonUK

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