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Abstract

Political censorship in nineteenth-century Europe can be usefully perceived as a combination of political Rorschach test and barometer, reflecting with great accuracy the fears of regimes and the general political atmosphere within each country at any particular time. As a Rorschach test, censorship registered for each ruling elite the type and degree of the fears it felt with regard to its own population. Thus, the heightened fears which most European regimes had of the ‘unwashed masses’ were reflected in censorship provisions which were particularly designed to control the availability and content of media that were especially accessible to the poor. Because many of these fears were exaggerated and irrational, the same was often true of the political censorship that sought to allay them. And, because the intensity of these fears varied from time to time and from place to place, the harshness of political censorship in different countries and periods during the nineteenth century was high variable.

Keywords

Nineteenth Century French Revolution Political Control European History Traditional Elite 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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Notes

  1. 1.
    Jean-Pierre Bechu, La Belle Epoque et son envers: quand caricature écrit l’histoire (Paris, 1980) p. 54.Google Scholar
  2. F. W. J. Hemmings, Culture and Society in France, 1848–1898 (London, 1971) p. 53.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Odile Krakovitch, Hugo censuré: la liberté au théâtre au XIXe siècle (Paris, 1985) pp. 150, 286Google Scholar
  4. Odile Krakovitch, ‘Les Romantiques et la censure au théâtre’, Revue d’histore du théâtre, 36 (1984) 65.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    Horst Claus, The Theatre Director Otto Brahm (Ann Arbor, Mich., 1981) p. 71.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Richard Findlater, Banned! A Review of Theatrical Censorship in Britain (London, 1967) p. 91.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    B. V. Varneke, History of the Russian Theatre (New York, 1971) pp. 203–4.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    See for example Peter Amann, Revolution and Mass Democracy: The Paris Club Movement in 1848 (Princeton, NJ, 1975)Google Scholar
  9. P. H. Noyes, Organization and Revolution: Working Class Associations in the German Revolutions of 1848–1849 (Princeton, NJ, 1966); andCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Sidney Harcave, The Russian Revolution of 1905 (New York, 1970).Google Scholar
  11. 8.
    George Martin, The Red Shirt and the Cross of Savoy: The Story of Italy’s Risorgimento (New York, 1969) p. 219.Google Scholar
  12. 9.
    Richard Taylor, Film Propaganda (London, 1979) p. 41.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Robert Justin Goldstein 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robert Justin Goldstein
    • 1
  1. 1.Oakland UniversityRochesterUSA

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