Defusing the Global Powder Keg

  • Mark E. Clark


If we look at a map of the world and ask — Where is armed conflict going on? Where are populations growing fastest? Where is there the greatest poverty? — we discover that all maps coincide. Of the 120 armed conflicts taking place in 1987, all but four were in the so-called developing countries of the Third World. 1 Likewise, the highest rates of population growth are located in those same countries, and there also are found the lowest levels of literacy, of per capita income and of nutrition, and the highest levels of infant mortality and epidemic disease.


Cash Crop World Country Economic Dependency Luxury Good East India Company 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes and References

  1. †.
    Gustavo Esteva in S.H. Mendlovitz and R.B.J. Walker (eds), Towards a Just World Peace (London: Butterworths, 1987) p. 280.Google Scholar
  2. 1.
    B. Nietschmann, ‘The Third World War’, Cultural Survival Quarterly, 11(3) (1987) pp. 1–16.Google Scholar
  3. 2.
    L.S. Stavrianos, Global Rift: The Third World Comes of Age (New York: William Morrow, 1981) p. 53.Google Scholar
  4. 3.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p.256. In his Chapter 13, ‘Era of Monopoly Capitalism and Global Colonialism’, (pp. 256–77), Stavrianos cogently links together the growth of capitalism and the growth of imperialism.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    J.S. Saul (ed.), A Difficult Road: The Transition to Socialism in Mozambique (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1985) p. 41.Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    T. Gladwin, Slaves of the White Myth: The Psychology of Neocolonialism (Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Human Press, 1980) p. 45 f.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    Saul, A Difficult Road, p. 45.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Gladwin, Slaves, pp. iv-v.Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    S. Wawrytko, ‘Chinese Philosophy on Its Way to the Twenty-First Century: Meeting the Challenge of Cultural Imperialism’, Proceedings of the First Conference in Chinese Philosophy, 1984 (Taichung, Taiwan: Tunghai University Press, 1985) pp. 715–36; quote is from pp. 716–17.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 118.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    J. Robinson, Aspects of Development and Underdevelopment (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1979) p. 103.Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    E. Easwaran, Gandhi the Man (Petaluma, CA: Nilgiri Press, 1978) pp. 76–81Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 39.Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 80f.Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 46.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Gladwin, Slaves, p. 8 f; Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 181 f.Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 182.Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 233.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    V. Mehta, ‘Personal History’, New Yorker (22 August 1983) p. 39, pp. 44–50.Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    J.J. Boeke, The Structure of Netherlands Indian Economy (New York: International Secretariat, Institute of Pacific Relations, 1942) pp. 18–19.Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    Boeke, The Structure of Netherlands Indian Economy, p. 25.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    Boeke, The Structure of Netherlands Indian Economy, p. 74.Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Boeke, The Structure of Netherlands Indian Economy, p. 68.Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Boeke, The Structure of Netherlands Indian Economy, p. 72.Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    J.F. Ade Ajayi and I. Espie, A Thousand Years of West African History (New York: Humanities Press, 1972) p. 256 f.Google Scholar
  26. 25.
    Nietschmann, ‘The Third World War’, p. 5 and p. 1.Google Scholar
  27. 26.
    Ajayi and Espie, A Thousand Years, end papers.Google Scholar
  28. 27.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 38.Google Scholar
  29. 28.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 274.Google Scholar
  30. 29.
    S.A. Hewlett, The Cruel Dilemma of Development: Twentieth Century Brazil (New York: Basic Books, 1980) p. 215 f.Google Scholar
  31. 30.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 86 (dams); C.J. Lancaster, ‘Africa: Economics and Politics of Development’, Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists (September 1985) p. 27 (steel mills).Google Scholar
  32. 30.
    D. Avery, ‘U.S. Farm Dilemma: The Global Bad News Is Wrong’, Science 230 (1985) p. 411 (general preference for industrialisation over agricultural development).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 31.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p.40.Google Scholar
  34. 32.
    J. Maynard Keynes, quoted in Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 33.Google Scholar
  35. 33.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 33.Google Scholar
  36. 34.
    UNCTAD (United Nations Conference on Trade and Development) IV TD 183, paragraph 13, quoted in Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 80.Google Scholar
  37. 35.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 52.Google Scholar
  38. 36.
    E. Mortimer, Faith and Power: The Politics of Islam (New York: Vintage Books, Random House, 1982); see especially p. 293 f.Google Scholar
  39. 36.
    See also James A. Bill, ‘Resurgent Islam in the Persian Gulf’, Foreign Affairs (Fall 1984) pp. 108–27.Google Scholar
  40. 37.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 68.Google Scholar
  41. 38.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, pp. 73–4.Google Scholar
  42. 39.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 61.Google Scholar
  43. 40.
    F.M. Lappé and J. Collins, Food First: Beyond the Myth of Scarcity (New York: Ballantine Books, 1978) p. 280 f; Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 444.Google Scholar
  44. 41.
    A. Dobrin, ‘The Vanishing Herds’, Food Monitor (May-June 1978) p. 23 (quoted by Stavrianos, Global Rift, pp. 676–7.)Google Scholar
  45. 42.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 88.Google Scholar
  46. 43.
    Hewlett, The Cruel Dilemma, p. 19; T.J. Thompson, II, ‘Commentary’, Multinational Monitor (February 1984) p. 9.Google Scholar
  47. 44.
    Gladwin, Slaves, p. 97, 98. See also R.J. Barnet and R.E. Müller, Global Reach: The Power of the Multinational Corporations (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1974) p. 178.Google Scholar
  48. 44.
    J. Gay, ‘Sweet Darlings in the Media: How Foreign Corporations Sell Western Images of Women in the Third World’, Multinational Monitor (August 1983) pp. 19–21.Google Scholar
  49. 45.
    M. Clark, Contemporary Biology, 2nd edn (Philadelphia: W.B. Saunders, 1979) pp. 200, 398–9.Google Scholar
  50. 46.
    Lappé and Collins, Food First, p. 336f. See also Barnet and Müller, Global Reach, p. 183.Google Scholar
  51. 47.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p.447.Google Scholar
  52. 48.
    W. Loehr and J.P. Powelson, Threat to Development: Pitfalls of the NIEO (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1983) p. 157 f.Google Scholar
  53. 49.
    O.G. Wichard, ‘U.S. Direct Investment in 1979’, Survey of Current Business (August 1980) (Washington, DC: US Department of Commerce) pp. 16–37.Google Scholar
  54. 50.
    Loehr and Powelson, Threat to Development, p. 82 f.Google Scholar
  55. 51.
    C. Payer, The Debt Trap: The IMF and the Third World (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1974) pp. 215–16.Google Scholar
  56. 51.
    See also C. Payer, The World Bank: A Critical Analysis (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1982); Loehr and Powelson, Threat to Development, p. 96 f.Google Scholar
  57. 52.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 674. He describes the corrupt use of foreign aid by the US-backed dictator of Zaire, Joseph Mobutu.Google Scholar
  58. 53.
    J.W. Mellor, The New Economics of Growth: A Strategy for India and the Developing World (Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press, 1976).Google Scholar
  59. 54.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 93.Google Scholar
  60. 55.
    H.H. Humphrey, quoted by Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 443.Google Scholar
  61. 56.
    Stavrianos, Global Rift, p. 442 f.Google Scholar
  62. 57.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development Table, p. 93.Google Scholar
  63. 58.
    Payer, The Debt Trap, pp. ix—xi; quote from p. ix.Google Scholar
  64. 59.
    ‘The Buck Never Stops: International Lending Out of Control’, Dollars & Sense (December 1982).Google Scholar
  65. 60.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 97 f.Google Scholar
  66. 61.
    N. Chomsky, On Power and Ideology (Boston: South End Press, 1986) p. 7.Google Scholar
  67. 62.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 88 f.Google Scholar
  68. 63.
    These points are elaborated in the following: H.M. Wachtel, The Money Mandarins: The Making of a New Supranational Economic Order (New York: Pantheon, 1986).Google Scholar
  69. 63.
    H.M. Watchel, ‘The Global Funny Money Game’, The Nation (26 December 1987) pp. 784–90.Google Scholar
  70. 63.
    W.R. Mead, ‘After Hegemony’, New Perspectives Quarterly (Fall 1987) pp. 42–7. Significantly, in the late 1980s, the World Bank, recognising the general failure of past investments in developing countries, has begun to give loans for environmentally and socially more sensitive projects.Google Scholar
  71. 64.
    T. Ratigan, former Peace Corps Volunteer, personal communication.Google Scholar
  72. 65.
    J. Macy, Dharma and Development: Religion as Resource in the Sarvodaya Self-Help Movement (West Hartford, CT: Kumarian Press, 1983) p. 22 f. This offers good insight into how a religious worldview informs all human activities, including economics.Google Scholar
  73. 66.
    T. Vittachi, ‘Clues to Development in the Commonwealth Isles’, People (IPPF Review of Population and Development), 12 (4) (1985) pp. 4–6.Google Scholar
  74. 67.
    S.T. Umpleby, ‘World Population: Still Ahead of Schedule’, Science, 237 (1987) pp. 1555–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. 68.
    P. Harrison, ‘Land and People: A New Framework for the Food Security Equation’, Ceres, No. 98, Vol. 17(2) (March-April 1984), Centrepiece. This report was prepared for the United Nations Food and Agricultural Organization (FAO), based on the most recent LandSat and other global information on soil, climate, and crop yields, and the predicted populations in 2000 by region and by country.Google Scholar
  76. 68.
    Contrast this FAO report with a highly optimistic one sponsored by the Bureau of Intelligence and Research, US Department of State, which relies almost exclusively on World Bank assessments of global agricultural outputs and ignores both population growth and virtually all FAO and other United Nations data: K. Avery, ‘U.S. Farm Dilemma: The Global Bad News Is Wrong’, Science, 230 (1985) pp. 408–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. 69.
    C. Bolton and J.W. Leasure, ‘Political Development and Decline of Fertility in the West’, Article No. 11, pp. 84–102, in J.W. Leasure et al., Population and the Social Sciences (San Diego, CA: San Diego State University Press, 1978).Google Scholar
  78. 70.
    See Population and Other Problems: China Today (1) pamphlet published by Beijing Review China Publications Centre, P.O. Box 339, Beijing, China (1981) pp. 7–33. In addition to economic incentives, powerful peer pressure is brought to bear on Chinese women; those pregnant with a second child are strongly urged by friends and co-workers to seek abortion. Bearing too many children is now considered socially irresponsible.Google Scholar
  79. 71.
    J.R. Weeks, Population: An Introduction to Concepts and Issues (Belmont, CA: Wadsworth, 1981) p. 361.Google Scholar
  80. 72.
    Reported by S. Rosenhause, ‘India Taking Drastic Birth Control Step’, Los Angeles Times (25 September 1976) (quoted in Weeks, Population, p. 357). Nearly a decade later, both birth and death rates have declined only marginally, leaving the doubling time unaffected. Shortly after the year 2000, India’s population will overtake that of China. In 1985 Prime Minister Rajiv Ghandi announced a ‘war’ on fertility, with major monetary incentives for two-child families and sterilisation (Popline (May 1985) pp. 1–2).Google Scholar
  81. 73.
    M. Kendall, ‘The World Fertility Survey: Current Status and Findings’, Population Reports (Population Information Program of Johns Hopkins University, M-3 (July 1979)).Google Scholar
  82. 74.
    Vittachi, ‘Clues to Development’, pp. 4–6.Google Scholar
  83. 75.
    Robinson, Aspects of Development, p. 98.Google Scholar
  84. 76.
    Macy, Dharma and Development, p. 74. For other works on self-reliant development, see J. Galtung, P. O’Brien and R. Preiswerk (eds), Self-Reliance: A Strategy for Development (Geneva: Institute of Development Studies, 1980).Google Scholar
  85. 76.
    O. Giarini, Dialogue on Wealth and Welfare: An Alternative View of World Capital Formation (Oxford: Pergamon Press, 1980). Both books make the point that ‘wealth’ comprises not only matter-energy, per se, nor even the technical knowledge of how to coopt it for human use, but the wisdom to make such use serve, not dominate, the diversity of cultural values that humans have evolved.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Mark E. Clark 1989

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mark E. Clark
    • 1
  1. 1.San Diego State UniversityUSA

Personalised recommendations