The Global R&D System: Where is the Third World?

  • Jan Annerstedt

Abstract

Organized knowledge is often considered to be a key factor in the evolution of the man-made world. All civilizations have rested upon a continuous flow of information, diversified and instrumental, in order to effectively utilize and further develop the forces of production. New knowledge has always been needed to better control the natural and social environments.

Keywords

Europe Expense Malaysia Argentina Indonesia 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 2.
    J. Annerstedt: A Survey of World Research and Development Efforts. The Distribution of Human and Financial Resources to Research and Experimental Development in 1973, Paris: OECD Development Centre & Roskilde: Roskilde University Center’s Institute of Economics and Planning, 1979.Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Cf. J. D. Bernal: The Social Function of Science, London: Routledge & Keagan Paul, 1939 (1967 reprint, Cambridge, Mass: MIT Press), chapters 3, 8, and 12 and appendices. Stevan Dedijer has also referred to Soviet studies with similar statistical ambitions from the mid-1920s.Google Scholar
  3. 11.
    For the 1970s cf. National Science Board: Science Indicators 1974, Washington: National Science Foundation (NSB-75–1), 1974Google Scholar
  4. 11.
    and National Science Board: Science Indicators 1976, Washington: National Science Foundation (NSB- 77–1), 1977.Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    For the 1980s see National Science Board: Science Indicators 1982, Washington: National Science Foundation (NSB-83–1), 1983Google Scholar
  6. 11.
    and National Science Board: Science Indicators. The 1985 Report, Washington: National Science Foundation (NSB-85–1), 1985.Google Scholar
  7. 14.
    See note 2, ibid, pp 9–11. Further details are provided in J. Annerstedt: “The world research system. The distribution of human and financial resources devoted to research and experimental development in the 1960s and the 1970s”, Linköping: Department of Theme Research, Linköping University (unpublished report, 84 pp), 1981.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Jan Annerstedt and Andrew Jamison 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Jan Annerstedt
    • 1
  1. 1.Roskilde University CenterDanmark

Personalised recommendations