Japanese youths graduate from high school about 19 years of age, or from university about 23. Of the high proportion that continue their schooling through university many graduates choose their places of employment, if they can, after weighing up the benefits they expect to receive through to compulsory retirement around the age of sixty, or older if they become directors. Although the wind of change is blowing, the large companies seldom discharge their permanent employees and permanent employees of such companies rarely change jobs midway. The young graduates expect that for many years their promotion will follow seniority more than productivity, but they hope that, if they show in their work that they have the makings of managerial ability and if they can gain the confidence of their superiors, they will be promoted above their fellows when the time comes. The majority intend to identify themselves with their company and derive satisfaction from belonging to something they feel to be significant. They accept an oppressive system and subordinate their personal interests in return for membership. These employees even hope that the employer will arrange another job for them after their retirement. The first job determines their lives.
KeywordsTrade Union Permanent Employee National Federation International Business Machine Employment System
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