Agitation and Subversion, 1845–1848
During most of his reign (1831–49), Charles Albert remained a king on the old pattern. Not only was the island of Sardinia the last place in Italy (and almost the last in Europe) where the personal services and the baronial courts of feudalism continued to enjoy legal sanction, but even in Piedmont and Liguria Charles Albert restored the ecclesiastical courts and reinforced the Jesuits in their control over university education. A religious as well as a civil censorship continued to exist at Turin, with the result that Gioia, Romagnosi, and even Machiavelli were banned, while the list of unprintable words continued to include nation, revolution, liberty, and even Italy.
KeywordsVortex Europe Income Assure Expense
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