The Zionisms of Israel

  • Teodor Shanin


Let us begin with a paradox: social complexity is often best presented and grasped in this way. At the heart of the questions of Zionism lie two seemingly contradictory sets of facts, and a question, ‘Why?’. To the broad lay public of outsiders with liberal or socialist sympathies, Zionism is the guiding ideology of Israel. This state emerged some decades ago as the Middle East’s chief bully, an oppressor of Arabs and a global ally of most reactionary regimes. The 1982 bombing of Beirut and other conduct sustain this image. But then, how does one fit into it the Tel Aviv demonstration of 400 000 who shouted their fury against the Lebanese war and blocked its further unfolding? What about the 2000 Israelis who pledged to go to military prison rather than serve in the army of occupation? After all, the mass of them were Zionists by self-definition, and indeed believed themselves to be defying their government becaus. of Zionism.


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Notes and References

  1. 2.
    The relevant sources are too numerous to be quoted in full. To name a few of the most significant (all of which will be of importance insofar as the next paragraph is concerned): W. Laqueur, A History of Zionis. (London, 1972)Google Scholar
  2. I. Cohen, A Short History of Zionis. (London, 1951)Google Scholar
  3. N. Lucas, The Modern History of Israe. (London 1974);Google Scholar
  4. S. Avineri, The Making of Modern Zionis. (New York, 1982).Google Scholar
  5. And more critical of Zionism, M. Selzer, Zionism Reconsidere. (New York, 1950);Google Scholar
  6. A. Buber, The Other Israe. (New York, 1972);Google Scholar
  7. I. Ilam, Introduction to a Different History of Zionis. (Hebrew) (Ramat Gan, 1973)Google Scholar
  8. N. Chomsky, Peace in the Middle Eas. (New York, 1974).Google Scholar
  9. 3.
    Laqueur, History of Zionis., ch. 6; Lucas, Modern History of Israe., ch. 3; Avineri, Making of Modern Zionis. pts 13, 14, 15. Also P. Merchav, A Short History of the Israeli Labour Movemen. (Hebrew) (Marchavia. 1967). chs B. C and D.Google Scholar
  10. 4.
    Laqueur, History of Zionis. chs 5 to 9; Ilam, Introduction to a Different History. Chomsky, Peace in the Middle Eas. Introduction. Also J. B. Schachtman et al., History of the Revisionist Movemen. (Tel-Aviv, 1970).Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    S. H. Sankovsky, A Short History of Zionis. (New York, 1947), pp. 153–9;Google Scholar
  12. E. Luttwak et al., The Israeli Arm. (London, 1975), pp. 12 and 13;Google Scholar
  13. T. Lamm, Zionism’s Path from Realism to Autis. (Jerusalem, 1974); Lucas, Modern History of Israe., p. 178.Google Scholar
  14. 15.
    J. de Raynier, A Jerusalem Un Drapeau Flottait sur la Ligne de Fe. (Neuchatal, 1950), pp. 69–74. Also a declaration of the Haganah commander of Jerusalem in Dava., 12.4.48. For the Altalen. affair, see Luttwak, The Israeli Arm., p. 38.Google Scholar
  15. 16.
    Introduced as emergency regulation 1949 and made law in March 1950, see S. Jiryis, Arabs in Israe. (Hebrew) (Tel-Aviv, 1966), ch. 2, especially pp. 62–7.Google Scholar
  16. 28.
    A. Kapeliuk, ‘Generals in Demand’, Le Monde/Guardian Weekl., 6 November 1973.Google Scholar
  17. 29.
    See P.Y. Medding, Mapai in Israe. (Cambridge 1972) who related depoliticisation of the Labour Party membership to its social characteristics.Google Scholar

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© Teodor Shanin 1988

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  • Teodor Shanin

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