Advertisement

Renewal of the Incendiary Propaganda, 1958–85

  • Dimitry V. Pospielovsky

Abstract

Khrushchev’s brutal antireligious attacks and persecutions went by almost unnoticed in the West, partly because the predominantly agnostic Western media wanted to see a liberal in Khrushchev and did not care much about religion, but partly also because the features of antireligious campaigns prominent in the 1920s and 1930s were almost absent now. True, a special antireligious mass propaganda journal did appear in 1959. But this Science and Religion (NiR), although aggressive and vulgar at times, as the following blasphemous illustrations demonstrate, was not comparable to the viciousness of Bezbozhnik or Bezbozhnik u stanka. The methods and excuses applied in the mass closure of churches and other forms of persecutions will be discussed in the next chapter. Plenty of unofficial and semi-official reports were available in the West about these brutalities and terror. Many of them even found their way to the Western media, yet the outside world paid little attention to these ‘unconfirmed’ reports. These were several reasons why this onslaught drew so little world public attention at the time.

Keywords

Religious Believer Soviet Regime Detective Story Holy Place Religious Literature 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Chapter 5: Renewal of the Incendiary Propaganda, 1958–85

  1. 4.
    Ibid, p.92; G. Vasil’ev, ‘Bogoslov — podstrekatel’, NiR, no. 10 (1966) pp. 25–6; Alla Trubnikova, ‘Klikushi v pokhode’, and Tainik v taburetke’, Oktiabr’, no. 7 (1962) pp. 130–42, and no.9 (1964) pp. 161–77, respectively.Google Scholar
  2. 5.
    P. Voskresensky, ‘Dukhovnyi otets Vadima Shavrova’, NiR, no. 5 (1960) pp. 32–7. For Levitin’s rebuttal, see his ‘Moi otvet zhurnalu Nauka i religiia’, (20 June 1960, Dialogs tserkovnoi Rossiei (Paris: Ixis 1967) pp. 4369Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    E. Baller, ‘Vospityvat’ voinstvuiushchikh ateistov’, NiR, no. 2 (Oct. 1959) pp. 78–9.Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    L. Zavelev, ‘Istoriia novogo Iova’, NiR, no. 7 (July 1960) pp. 36–43Google Scholar
  5. 7.
    M. Khomenko, ‘Zhitie vladyki Andreia’, NiR, no. 8 (1962) pp. 62–9Google Scholar
  6. 7.
    V. Siuris, a former priest, ‘Chomu is zrixia dukhovnoho sanu?’, Voiovnychyi ateist, no. 7 (July 1961) pp. 25–7Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    N. Kar’kov, ‘K komu zhe idti ispovedovatsia?’, NiR, no. 6 (1960) pp. 61–5. The fraudulence and fixed stereotypes of such publications and clergy character-assassinations are revealed particularly when well-known (alas, not for the average Soviet citizen) historical facts are thus twisted: for instance, the story of the 1921–2 famine and Patriarch Tikhon’s attitude to it. Contrast: Unsigned, ‘Padenie sviateishego patriarkha’, NiR, no. 3 (1964) pp. 88–90; and Pospielovsky, The Russian Church, vol. 1, ch. 3. Attacks against Archb. Iov continued even after he had served his prison term and became a diocesan bishop once again.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    For example, V. Ushakov, Pravoslavie i XX vek (Alma-Ata: Kazakhstan, 1968) pp. 52–6. Had there been any substance in these accusations, neither of the bishops would have been reappointed soon after their release.Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    A. Osipov, ‘Bitva za dushi chelovecheskie’, Oktiabr’, no. 10 (1963) pp. 163–70.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    S krestom na shee’, Lit. gaz., (2 Oct. 1962). Other similar slanderous material on monasteries and pilgrimages: three letters by former theology students, ‘Podumaite o svoei sud’be!’ and ‘Dnevnik inokini’, NiR, no. 4 (1962) pp. 27–33. Particular attacks on the Pochaev Monastery: Iu. Melmiichuk, ‘V Pochaeve kolokola zvoniat’, NiR, no. 2 (1960) pp. 57–9Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    O. Shamaro, ‘Meshkantsi bratskoho korpusu’, Voi. at., no. 12 (Dec. 1961) pp. 18–24Google Scholar
  12. 9.
    Shamaro, ‘Bessilie “chudotvornykh sviatyn”’, NiR, no. 1(1962) pp. 26–30Google Scholar
  13. 9.
    E. Maiat, I. Uzkov, ‘Rushatsia monastyrskie steny’, NiR, no. 9 (1961) pp. 22–31.Google Scholar
  14. 10.
    Levitin, Zashchita very vs SSR (Paris: IXOYC, 1966) pp. 32–62.Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    For example, N. Proskuriakova, ‘Marnovirstvo — voroh zdorov’ia’, Voiovnychyi ateist, no. 7 (Kiev, 1963) pp. 12–15.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    Tainik’, pp. 163–5 et passim. Similar slanderous stories on the Old Believer and ‘True Orthodox’ hideaways in: Shamaro, ‘Vernopoddannye bezvozvratnogo proshlogo’, NiR, no. 3 (1959) pp. 49–54Google Scholar
  17. 15.
    ‘Na beregu chernoi magii’, NiR, no. 1 (1963) pp. 21–9Google Scholar
  18. 15.
    L. Khvolovsky, ‘Byvshie liudi’, NiR, no. 7 (1964) pp. 24–32.Google Scholar
  19. 20.
    E. Sergienko, ‘Sviatye pis’ma’, NiR, no. 4 (1977) pp. 55–8.Google Scholar
  20. 25.
    L. Anninsky, ‘Sila dukha i vera v Boga’, NiR, no. 10 (1965) pp. 44–7Google Scholar
  21. 25.
    A. Ivanenko. ‘Nad tsym varto zamyslytys’, Liudyna i svit, no. 7 (July 1965)Google Scholar
  22. 25.
    Larisa Kuznetsova, ‘Na tikhoi ulitse’, NiR, no. 1 (1974) pp. 44–9; V. Kharazov, ‘Dosadnaia istoriia’, NiR, no. 7 (1979).Google Scholar
  23. 28.
    A. V. Belov and A. D. Shilkin, Ideologicheskie diversii imperializma i religiia (M.: Znanie, 1970) p. 34.Google Scholar
  24. 29.
    M. Kosyv, ‘Pokutniki— kto oni?’, NiR, no. 8 (1975) pp. 56–7Google Scholar
  25. 29.
    L. Smirnov, ‘Iavlenie bogomateri s pomoshch’iu nozhnits i kleia’ (including the photo), NiR, no. 1 (1966) p. 95.Google Scholar
  26. 31.
    Lev Ovalov, ‘Pomni obo mne’, NiR nos 1–6 (1966), particularly nos 4 and 5, pp. respectively 80–93 and 77–89.Google Scholar
  27. 32.
    Michael Bourdeaux, Patriarch and Prophets (London: Macmillan, 1969); Pospielovsky, Russian Church, vol. 2, ch. 10.Google Scholar
  28. 34.
    In addition to the above titles, see inter alia: Belov and Shilkin, Religiia v sovremennoi ideologicheskoi bor’be (M.: Znanie, 1971)Google Scholar
  29. 34.
    V. V. Konik, Tainy religioznykh missii (M.: Molodaia gvardiia, 1980)Google Scholar
  30. 34.
    Belov, Sviatye bez nimbov (M.: Sovetskaia Rossiia, 1983)Google Scholar
  31. 34.
    Evgenii Vistunov, Priglashenie v zapadniu (L.: Lenizdat, 1984). The latter also contains a relatively detailed, if falsified, history of the Narodno-trudoroi soiuz (NTS), and descriptions (also falsified) of the Leningrad Christian-feminist movement and its participants. All of them, as well as several Soviet citizens who had cooperated with the NTS, are depicted as only using the label of Christians to camouflage their subversive activities. NTS — or, in full, the Toiling Alliance of Russian Solidarists — is a patriotic Russian anti-communist organization working towards a ‘national revolution’ and moral renewal in Russia, since its foundation by Russian émigré youth in 1930. Its underground activities inside the USSR and among Soviet citizens abroad, its refusal ‘to die’ in accordance with the ‘biological laws of emigrant communities’, and its ability to replenish itself from among the ranks of new waves of émigrés, make it particularly hateful to the Soviets, who constantly label it as a Western intellegence services’ front organization.Google Scholar
  32. 35.
    Belov and Shilkin, Ideologicheskie, Religiia v sovremennoi ideologicheskoi bor’be (M.: Znanie, 1971), and DiversiiaGoogle Scholar
  33. 35.
    V. V. Konik, Tainy religioznykh missii (M.: Molodaia gvardiia, 1980); and a multitude of other similar publications.Google Scholar
  34. 38.
    Cited from A. Babiichuk, ‘Molodiozhy ideinuiu zakalku’, NiR, no. 1 (1985) p. 10. It is interesting that the resolutions of that ideological plenum do not mention religion by name, but only ideological diversions and the necessity to struggle for a better ideological education of the Soviet people. Soviet ‘religiological’ publications constantly refer to that plenum, and cite excerpts from speeches, as in Babichuk’s article, in the way of a guidance for the intensification of anti-religious struggle. In most such quotations it is merely declared, ‘as stated at the plenum’, thus giving the impression that such direct appeals were contained in one of its resolutions (or perhaps there was an unpublished secret resolution to this effect as well).Google Scholar
  35. 39.
    G. Belikova, ‘Strannaia sud’ba Sashi Karpova’, NiR, no. 9 (1984) pp. 37–40Google Scholar
  36. 40.
    A. Shamaro, ‘Delo igumenii Mitrofanii’, NiR, no. 9 (1984) pp. 41–5Google Scholar
  37. 40.
    D. Koretsky and Shamaro, ‘“Sviataia” Nastia’, NiR, no. 3 (1984) pp. 45–50Google Scholar
  38. 40.
    A. Shuvalov, ‘Piushchee dukhovenstvo’, NiR, no. 6 (1984) p. 40Google Scholar
  39. 40.
    F. Nikitina, ‘V belom klobuke s zhandarmskim axelbantom’, NiR, nos 11 and 12 (1982) pp. 41–3 and 42–4, respectivelyGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    N. Aleev, ‘Ne ukradi, a sam ukral’, Pravda vostoka (1 January 1970) p. 4.Google Scholar
  41. 42.
    Vladimir Tendriakov, ‘Chudotvornaia’ (The Miracle-Working Icon), Chrezvychainoe (M.: Sovremennik, 1972) pp. 91–178; the story was first published in the early 1960s.Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    M. G. Pismanik, Lichnost’ i religiia (M.: Nauka, 1976) pp. 18–21.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dimitry V. Pospielovsky 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dimitry V. Pospielovsky
    • 1
  1. 1.University of Western OntarioCanada

Personalised recommendations