Advertisement

Goals and Objectives of International Terrorism

  • Alex Schmid

Abstract

The term ‘international terrorism’ has become a catchword whose use often clouds more than it explains. Not long ago David Lange, the Prime Minister of New Zealand, labelled a French secret service sabotage operation against Greenpeace’s Rainbow Warrior ‘an act of international terrorism.’1 A former Dutch Minister of Defence used the same label when referring to this act (which killed one Dutch citizen) and stopped just short of asking whether it would be appropriate to demand the extradition of the ultimately responsible French Minister of Defence. I consider the label ‘terrorism’ as inappropriate in this particular instance for reasons which become apparent when one analyses the targeting of terrorists. The incident with the Rainbow Warrior was of course ‘international’ as are, in a trivial sense, all incidents of a political nature where the nationalities of victims and perpetrators differ or when an act of violence is intended to influence another nation. For many, international terrorism has become a psychological codeword for international communism. While not denying that the USSR arms and trains liberation movements and that members of such movements frequently have recourse to acts of terrorism, the search for evidence linking incidents to masterminds in the Kremlin has not produced conclusive results.

Keywords

Terrorist Group Security Force International Terrorism Political Prisoner Bomb Attack 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Arendt H. (1970) On Violence (New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich). Atlantisch Nieuws (1986) 1–2, p. 7.Google Scholar
  2. Aust, Stefan (1985) Interview with NRC-Handelsblad (Rotterdam) July 27, 1985 (Zaterdag-bijvoegsel).Google Scholar
  3. Becker, J. (1978) Hitler’s Children (London: Panther).Google Scholar
  4. Berliner Tageszeitung (1975) 5 December (taz).Google Scholar
  5. Brien, W. (1985) ‘Terrorism, What Should We Do?’, in This World, Fall, no. 12.Google Scholar
  6. Bundesministerium des innern (1984) Verfassungsschutzbericht, Bonn.Google Scholar
  7. Bundesministerium des innern (1985) Terroristen im Kampf gegen Recht und Menschenwurde. Bonn.Google Scholar
  8. Crotty, W. J. (1979) Assassination and the Political Order (New York: Harper & Row).Google Scholar
  9. Der Spiegel (1978) 11 December, pp. 62–65; 17 August, p. 81.Google Scholar
  10. Die Welt (1985) 26 January (Hamburg).Google Scholar
  11. Die Welt (1985) 10 January.Google Scholar
  12. Drake, R. (1984) ‘Contemporary Italy’, in International Political Science Review, vol 5, no. 3, p. 281.Google Scholar
  13. Duvall, R. D. and Stohl, M. (1983) ‘Governance by Terror’ in M. Stohl (ed.) The Politics of Terrorism (New York: Marcel Dekker) 2nd edn.Google Scholar
  14. Edelman, M. (1977) Political Language: Words that Succeed and Politics that Fail (New York: Academic Press).Google Scholar
  15. Eidlin, Fred H. (1980) The Logic of Normalization (New York).Google Scholar
  16. Ferracuti, F. (1982) ‘A Sociopsychiatric Interpretation of Terrorism’, The Annals of the American Academy, vol. 463, September, pp. 137–8.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Fetscher, I. and Rohrmoser G., (1981) Ideologien und Strategien. Analysen zum Terrorismus, vol. 1 (Opladen: Westdeutscher Verlag).Google Scholar
  18. Friedlanger, R. A. (1984) An Infinity of Minors: Mehmet Ali Agca and the Plot to Kill the Pope’ (Gaithersburg, Maryland: IACP).Google Scholar
  19. Geissler, H. (1984) ‘Der Weg in die Gewalt’, in Totalitarismus, Exterimismus, Terrorismus (Opladen: Leske & Budrich).Google Scholar
  20. Goren, R. (1984) The Soviet Union and Terrorism (London: Allen & Unwin).Google Scholar
  21. Gurr, T. R. (1986) The Political Origins of State Violence and Terror: A Theoretical Analysis’, in George Lopez and Michael Stohl (eds) Govenment Violence and Repression: Agenda for Research (New Haven: Greenwood Press).Google Scholar
  22. Haluani, Makram (1982) Gewaltpolitik, Eina Politikwissenschafliche Makroanalyse einse politischer kampfmittels und seiner Problematik in heutigen Lateinsamerika (Munster: Westfalische Wilhelmus Universitat).Google Scholar
  23. Intelligence-Parapolitics (1985) no. 62, February (Paris) p. 1.Google Scholar
  24. Jongman, A. J. (1983) ‘World Directory of “Terrorist” Organizations’ in Alex P. Schmid (1983) Political Terrorism, A Research Guide to Concepts, Theories, Dates Bases and Literature (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co. and New Brunswick, New Jersey: Transaction Books).Google Scholar
  25. Klein, H. (1979) Ruckkehr in die Menschlichkeit, Appell eines ausgestiegenen Terroristen (Reinbek bei Hamburg: Rowohlt).Google Scholar
  26. Knipselkrant (1984) (Groningen).Google Scholar
  27. Knipselkrant (1985)Google Scholar
  28. Koestler, A (1967) The Ghost in the Machine (London: Hutchinson).Google Scholar
  29. Laqueur, W. (1977) Terrorism (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson).Google Scholar
  30. Liebknecht, K. (1979) The Social Psychology of Minority Identity: A Case Study of Intergroup Identification: Theoretical Refinement and Methodological Experimentation’, (Helsinki: University of Helsinki).Google Scholar
  31. Melman, Y. (1986) The Master Terrorist: The True Story Behind Abu Nidal (New York: Adama Books).Google Scholar
  32. Merton, R. K. (1973) The Sociology of Science (Chicago: University of Chicago Press).Google Scholar
  33. Murdock, George P. (1981) Atlas of World Cultures (Pittsburgh: University of Pittsburgh Press).Google Scholar
  34. Neidhart, F. (1982) ‘Linker und rechter Terrorismus. Erscheinungsformen und Handlungspotentiale in Gruppenvergleich’, in Wanda von Bayer-Katte et al. Gruppenprozesse: Analysen zum Terrorismus, vol. 3 (Opladen: West-deutscher Verlag).Google Scholar
  35. Nieuwsblad van Antwerpen (1985) 30 January (Antwerp).Google Scholar
  36. Post, J. M. (1984) ‘Notes on a Psychodynamic Theory of Terrorist Behavior’, in Terrorism: An International Journal, vol. 7, no. 3.Google Scholar
  37. Price, H. E. (1977) ‘The Strategy and Tactics of Revolutionary Terrorism’ in Comparative Studies in Society and History, vol. 19, no. 1, January.Google Scholar
  38. Putten, Jan Van Der (1985) ‘Staatshoofd van Guatamala Vergoeilijkt moordpartijen’, in Volksrant, 6 November.Google Scholar
  39. Rauschning, H. (1940) Gesprache mit Hitler (Wien).Google Scholar
  40. Schlesinger, P. G., Murdock, G. and Elliott, P. (1983) Televising Terrorism: Political Violence in Popular Culture (London: Comedia Publishing Group).Google Scholar
  41. Schmid, A P. (1985) Soviet Military Interventions Since 1945 with case-studies by Ellen Berends (New Brunswick: Transaction Books).Google Scholar
  42. Schmid, A P. and De Graaf, J. (1982) Violence as Communication: Insurgent Terrorism and the Western News Media (Beverly Hills, California: Sage).Google Scholar
  43. Schmid, A P. (1983) Political Terrorism: A Research Guide to Concepts, Theories, Data Bases and Literature (Amsterdam: North-Holland Publishing Co.; New Brunswick: Transaction Books).Google Scholar
  44. Schmittchen (1984). As quoted in Backes. Uwe and Eckhard Jesse (1984) Totalitarismus, Extermismus, Terrorismus Opladen, Leskeand Budrich.Google Scholar
  45. Spiegel-Gesprach, (1979) ‘Wir mussen raus aus den Schutzengraben’, Bundesminister Baum und ex-Terrorist Mahler uber des Phenomenon Terrorismus, Der spiegel, vol. 33. no. 32, 31 December.Google Scholar
  46. Suddentsche Zeitung (1985)Google Scholar
  47. Thornton, T. P. (1964) ‘Terror as a Weapon of Political Agitation’, in H. Eckstein (ed.) Internal War: Problems and Approaches (New York: Free Press).Google Scholar
  48. Trotsky, L. (1974) Against Individual Terrorism (New York: Pathfinder Press (reprinted from ‘On Terrorism’ in Der Kampf no. 1911).Google Scholar
  49. Visser, Cees (1985) ‘Het Westeuropese terrorsme. Oorlogsverklaring aan de Navo’, Intermediair (Amsterdam) vol. 21, 24 May.Google Scholar
  50. Volksrant (1985) (Amsterdam) 4 January.Google Scholar
  51. Volksrant (1985) 10 april, p. 1.Google Scholar
  52. Wardlaw, G. (1982) Political Terrorism: Theory, Tactics and Countermeasures (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  53. Wilkinson, P. (1984) ‘Terrorism — Global Links’ in Rusi and Brasseys Defence Yearbook 1984 (New York: Pergamon Press).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Robert O. Slater and Michael Stohl 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alex Schmid

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations