The Electoral Message: Interpreting Election Results

  • Martin Harrop
  • William L. Miller


In the opening chapter we classified elections into free competitive elections, dominant-party elections, candidate-choice elections, and elections by acclamation. When freedom is curtailed we naturally focus on how much, if any, is left; and we classify elections according to the way they are organised and conducted. Elections without choice tell us about the regime, not the electorate. Indeed such elections are designed to prevent us finding out about the opinions, attitudes, prejudices and choices of the electorate.


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© Martin Harrop and William L. Miller 1987

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martin Harrop
  • William L. Miller

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