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- 2.Editors’ italics. Caine is referring to H. W. Foster and E. V. Bacon, Wealth for Welfare (London, 1943).Google Scholar
- 1.The Foreign Jurisdiction Act of 1890 empowered the Crown to exercise jurisdiction within a foreign country as if it had acquired that jurisdiction by conquest or the cession of territory. Theoretically interpreted as jurisdiction over British subjects alone, in practice the provisions of the Act were brought to bear upon the indigenous peoples as well, and, with the passage of time and the accumulation of precedent, the more comprehensive application of the FJA achieved a kind of validity. Up to 1945 Britain recognised the Malay Rulers as sovereign within their own states; with the conclusion of the MacMichael Treaties in 1945–6 the Crown gained sufficient authority to apply to the Malay states the FJA upon which rested the Orders in Council establishing the Malayan Union in 1946. Some opponents of the Malayan Union claimed that this extension of the FJA to the Malay states was illegal, but the irony was that the Malay Rulers could not contest it or the new treaties in English Courts without themselves submitting to English litigation and thereby abandoning their pretensions of sovereignty. See J. de V. Allen, A. J. Stockwell, L. R. Wright (eds) A Collection of Treaties and Other Documents affecting the States of Malaysia, 1761–1963 (London, Rome, New York: 1981) vol. I, pp. 1–15, 117–22.Google Scholar
- 3.Author, with S. S. Awberry, of Labour and Trade Union Organisation in the Federation of Malaya and Singapore (Kuala Lumpur: 1948).Google Scholar
© A. N. Porter and A. J. Stockwell 1987