• Michael Freemantle


All the data indicate that the water column of the Dead Sea is sharply stratified into two water masses separated by a stable boundary at a depth of 40 metres. Seasonal temperature fluctuations, from 19°C to 37°C, occur down to this depth, and the density and salinity of waters at this level vary with the seasons as well, of course, as with long-term changes in climate. However, below 40 metres these parameters remain unchanged throughout the year. Between 40 metres and 60 metres, temperature, density and salinity increase sharply; from 60 to 100 metres they increase more gradually. At greater depths most parameters are uniform, the temperature at the greatest sampling depth of about 350 metres being approximately 22°C and the salinity there being about 332 grammes per litre (g 1−1).


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© Michael Freemantle 1987

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  • Michael Freemantle

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