Electoral Systems and Hung Parliaments

  • David Butler


One title suggested for this book was Life After PR. It is, after all, an exploration of the problems that would necessarily follow if proportional representation were adopted. Proportional representation would virtually guarantee that there would never again be a clear majority for one party. But Life After PR as a simple and arresting title for the book would have been misleading because, despite popular belief, even the existing electoral system does not guarantee clear majorities. Proportional representation is a sufficient but not a necessary condition for hung parliaments. Indeed, as this chapter will argue, first-past-the-post elections are increasingly likely to produce them. The book’s central focus is on governing without majorities and not on the mechanics of the electoral system. Yet a consideration of how the existing electoral system currently operates to translate votes into seats, and of how a proportional system might work is essential to the argument.


Electoral System Proportional Representation Cent Lead Clear Majority Proportional System 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Copyright information

© David Butler 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Butler
    • 1
  1. 1.Nuffield CollegeOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations