Environmental Pressure Groups

  • Alan R. Ball
  • Frances Millard


In the study of liberal democratic states where environmental pressure groups are highly visible and extremely varied, the first problem that arises is that of identifying the groups which warrant this label. Then we need to turn our attention to the question of classifying these groups in such a way as to facilitate generalisations about the nature and effectiveness of their political activity. When we examine the Soviet Union and its East European neighbours, the problems are rather different. Firstly, the difficulties of acquiring reliable information are particularly acute. Secondly, we have already observed the general absence of spontaneous voluntary associations in these countries, although there are periods of uncontrolled social activity, such as the Prague Spring in Czechoslovakia in 1968 or the Solidarity period in Poland in 1980–81. This observation holds true equally in the environmental sphere, so that we must search for the articulation of environmental interests primarily through institutions and organisations explicitly sanctioned by the state. Thirdly, there are important differences between the USSR and the Eastern European states: although issues involving environmental deterioration have moved on to the Soviet political agenda, they are rather less evident in Eastern Europe.


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Notes to Chapter 6

  1. 1.
    R. Inglehart, The Silent Revolution. Changing Values and Political Styles among Western Publics (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977) p. 373. This emphasis on the post-industrial society is echoed in D. Meadows et al., The Limits to Growth (Washington, DC: Potomac Associates, 1972); and R. D. Holsworth, Public Interest and the Crisis of Affluence (Boston: G. K. Hall, 1980).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    Graham Wootton, Interest Groups (Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey: Prentice Hall, 1980) pp. 39–44.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    See E. Ashby and M. Henderson, The Politics of Clean Air (London: Oxford University Press, 1981).Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    John Kramer, ‘The Environmental Crisis in Eastern Europe: The Price for Progress’, Slavic Review, vol. 42, no. 2, summer 1983, p. 219.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 7.
    P. Lowe and J. Goyder, Environmental Groups in Politics (London: Allen & Unwin, 1983) p. 40.Google Scholar
  6. 8.
    Jerry Hough and Merle Fainsod, How the Soviet Union Is Governed (London: Harvard University Press, 1979) pp. 488, 652.Google Scholar
  7. 10.
    Tom Burke, ‘Friends of the Earth and the Conservation of Resources’, in Peter Willetts (ed.) Pressure Groups in the Global System (London: Frances Pinter, 1982) p. 109.Google Scholar
  8. 12.
    See, for example, Tony Chafer, ‘The Anti-Nuclear Movement and the Rise of Political Ecology’, in P. C. Cerny (ed.) Social Movement and Protest in France (London: France Pinter, 1982) pp. 202–19;Google Scholar
  9. D. Nelkin and M. Pollak, The Atom Besieged: Extra-Parliamentary Dissent in France and Germany (Boston: MIT Press, 1981) especially the Introduction.Google Scholar
  10. 13.
    Thane Gustafson, Reform in Soviet Politic. Lessons of recent policies on land and water (London: Cambridge University Press, 1981) p. 46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 14.
  12. 16.
    Vincent Wright, The Government and Politics of France (London: Hutchinson, 1983, 2nd edn) p. 150.Google Scholar
  13. 17.
    J. M. Berry, Lobbying for the People (Princeton: Princeton Univestiry Press, 1977) p. 56.Google Scholar
  14. 20.
    Donald Kelley, ‘Environmental Policy-Making in the USSR: the Role of Industrial and Environmental Interest Groups’, Soviet Studies, vol. XXVIII, no. 4, October 1976, pp. 583–4.Google Scholar
  15. 21.
    Piotr Topinski, ‘Ekolog w Polsce Ludowej’, Aneks, no. 31, 1983, p. 152.Google Scholar
  16. 23.
    D. Vogel, ‘The Public-Interest Movement and the American Reform Tradition’, Political Science Quarterly, vol. 95, no. 4, winter 1980/81, p. 621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 25.
    H. Ward, ‘The Anti-Nuclear Lobby: An Unequal Struggle?’, in D. Marsh (ed.) Pressure Politics (London: Junction Books, 1983) p. 192. The Sizewell enquiry finally came to an end in March 1985 after 340 days, costing the CEGB between 10 and 15 million pounds sterling.Google Scholar
  18. 27.
    See Carol Lewis and Stephen Sternheimer, Soviet Urban Management (New York: Praeger, 1979) especially pp. 24–35.Google Scholar
  19. 28.
    Gustafson, pp. 115–16; see also D. Kelley et al., The Economic Superpowers and the Environment: the United States, the Soviet Union and Japan (San Francisco: W. H. Freeman, 1976) pp. 163–5.Google Scholar
  20. 29.
    Lloyd Timberlake, ‘Poland — the Most Polluted Country in the World?’, New Scientist, 22 October 1981, p. 249.Google Scholar
  21. 35.
    Topinski, p. 151; see also Keith Bush, ‘The Soviet Response to Environmental Disruption’, in Ivan Volgyes (ed.) Environmental Deterioration in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe (New York: Praeger, 1974) p. 25; and in the same source Leslie Dienes, ‘Environmental Disruption in Eastern Europe’, pp. 153–4; also Kramer, p. 219.Google Scholar
  22. 37.
    Boris Komarov (pseud.) The Destruction of Nature in the Soviet Union (London: Pluto Press, 1980) p. 71.Google Scholar
  23. 39.
    G. Cox et al., ‘Countryside Politics’, Political Quarterly, vol. 54, no. 3, July–September 1983, pp. 268–82. By July 1984 the government was considering amending the Act to reduce the time in which owners could object to conservation orders. The FoE had published evidence on how farmers were managing to circumvent the Act; see The Guardian, 12 July 1984.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 41.
    Francis Sandbach, Environment, Ideology and Policy (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1980) P. 40.Google Scholar
  25. 42.
    G. C. Edwards, Implementing Public Policy (Washington, D.C.: Congressional Quarterly Press, 1981) p. 57. Edwards gives other examples of non-implementation, as when Ford and Chrysler obtained postponement of their compliance with federal exhaust emission standards, pp. 69–70.Google Scholar
  26. 43.
    M. Henzler, ‘Zatrute Rewiry’, Polityka, 23 April 1983, p. 5.Google Scholar
  27. 44.
    Quoted in Philip Pryde, Conservation in the Soviet Union (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972) p. 19.Google Scholar
  28. 47.
    See, for example, Charles Ziegler, ‘Soviet Environmental Policy and Soviet Central Planning: A Reply to McIntyre and Thornton’, Soviet Studies, vol. XXXII, no. 1, January 1980, p. 130.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Alan R. Ball and Frances Millard 1986

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  • Alan R. Ball
  • Frances Millard

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