Advertisement

From West to East and Back Again: Capitalist Expansion and Class Formation in the Nineteenth Century

  • Glenn Morgan
Part of the Explorations in Sociology book series

Abstract

One of the clearest trends in recent sociological theorizing has been the dawning recognition that for too long sociologists have unproblematically taken for granted the centrality of national boundaries in their discussions of social structure. The concept of society has drawn in its trail a whole set of assumptions that the nation-state is the basic framework for sociological analysis (cf. Urry, 1981). Such an approach has involved bracketing off both anthropology and history as well as themes from a number of earlier sociologists. Thus the findings of anthropologists on the shifting geographical boundaries and decentralized political forms of tribal and nomadic societies as well as historical analysis of pre-capitalist empires have been dismissed as irrelevant to the dynamics of class in capitalist nation-states. Instead analyses of class structure and the state have tended to occur as though one can abstract one ‘society’ from a set and analyze it individually without reference to the other members of the set. In doing so, the state and class structure become, as it were, phenomena determined internally to a set of geographical boundaries; they enter into a set of external relations — with other states — as preconstituted by their internal relations. The objective of this paper is to show that such a view is untenable; the state and class structure are constituted just as much in terms of their external as of their internal relations.

Keywords

Class Formation Class Structure Pearl River Delta Opium Trade East India Company 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Alavi, H. (1980) ‘India: Transition from Feudalism to Colonial Capitalism,’ in Journal of Contemporary Asia, vol. 10, no. 4.Google Scholar
  2. Barth, G. (1964) Bitter Strength: A History of the Chinese in the United States 1850–1870 (Cambridge, Mass: Harvard University Press).Google Scholar
  3. Brenner, R. (1977) ‘Origins of Capitalist Development,’ in New Left Review, no. 104.Google Scholar
  4. Burgess, K. (1975) The Origins of British Industrial Relations (London: Cocom Helm).Google Scholar
  5. Calhoun, C. (1982) The Question of Class Struggle (Oxford: Blackwell).Google Scholar
  6. Charlesworth, N. (1982) British Rule and the Indian Economy 1800–1914 (London: Macmillan).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chesneaux, J. (1973) Peasant Revolts in China 1840–1949 (London: Thames and Hudson).Google Scholar
  8. Elbaum, B. and Wilkinson, F. (1979) ‘Industrial Relations and Uneven Development: A Comparative Study of the American and British Steel Industries,’ in Cambridge Journal of Economics, 3.Google Scholar
  9. Farnie, D. A. (1979) The English Cotton Industry and the World Market 1815–1896 (Oxford: Clarendon Press).Google Scholar
  10. Foster, J. (1974) Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Frank, A. G. (1977) ‘Multilateral Merchandise Trade Imbalances and Uneven Economic Development,’ in Journal of European Economic History, vol. 6.Google Scholar
  12. Giddens, A. (1981) A Contemporary Critique of Historical Materialism (London: Macmillan).Google Scholar
  13. Gordon, D. M., Edwards, R. and Reich, M. (1982) Segmented Work: Divided Workers, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  14. Gray, R. (1975) ‘The Labour Aristocracy in the Victorian Class Structure,’ in F. Parkin (ed.) The Social Analysis of Class Structure (London: Tavistock).Google Scholar
  15. Gray, R. (1981) The Aristocracy of Labour in Nineteenth Century Britain c. 1850–1914 (London: Macmillan).Google Scholar
  16. Greenberg, M. (1949) British Trade and the Opening of China, New York: Monthly Review Press.Google Scholar
  17. Harnetty, P. (1972) Imperialism and Free Trade: Lancashire and India in the mid-19th century (Manchester: Manchester University Press).Google Scholar
  18. Headrick, M. (1981) The Tools of Empire: Technology and European Imperialism in the Nineteenth Century (Oxford: Oxford University Press).Google Scholar
  19. Hobsbawm, E. J. (1964) Labouring Men (London: Weidenfeld & Nicolson).Google Scholar
  20. Jones, G. S. (1975) ‘Class Struggle and the Industrial Revolution,’ in New Left Review, 90.Google Scholar
  21. Joyce, P. (1980) Work, Society and Politics (London: Methuen).Google Scholar
  22. Kiernan, V. G. (1980) Marxism and Imperialism (London: Edward Arnold).Google Scholar
  23. Kiernan, V. G. (1982) European Empires from Conquest to Collapse 1815–1960 (London: Fontana).Google Scholar
  24. Kingston, M. H. (1981) China Men (London: Picador).Google Scholar
  25. Kirk, N. (1981) ‘Cotton Workers and Deference,’ in Bulletin of the Society for the Study of Labour History.Google Scholar
  26. Klein, I. (1971) ‘English Free Traders and Indian Tariffs, 1874–1896,’ in Modern Asian Studies, 5, 3.Google Scholar
  27. Latham, A. J. H. (1977) ‘Merchandise Trade Imbalances and Uneven Economic Development in India and China,’ in Journal of European Economic History, vol. 6.Google Scholar
  28. Lazonick, W. (1979) ‘Industrial Relations and Technological Change: The Case of the Self-acting Mule,’ in Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol. 3, no. 3.Google Scholar
  29. Lenin, V. I. (1969) Selected Works (London: Lawrence & Wishart).Google Scholar
  30. McLennan, G. (1981) ‘The “Labour Aristocracy” and “Incorporation” ‘, in Social History, vol. 6, no. 1, January.Google Scholar
  31. Marshall, P. J. (1968) Problems of Empire: Britain and India 1756–1813 (London: Allen & Unwin).Google Scholar
  32. Marx, K. and Engels, F. (1975) Selected Correspondence (London: Lawrence & Wishart).Google Scholar
  33. Miller, S. C. (1969) The Unwelcome Immigrant: The American Image of the Chinese 1785–1882 (Berkeley, California:).Google Scholar
  34. Moore, B. (1966) Social Origins of Dictatorship and Democracy (Harmondsworth: Penguin).Google Scholar
  35. Moorhouse, H. (1979) ‘History, Sociology and the Quiescence of the British Working Class,’ in Social History, vol. 4, no. 3, October.Google Scholar
  36. Moorhouse, H. (1981) ‘The Marxist Theory of the Labour Aristocracy,’ in Social History, vol. 3, no. 1, January.Google Scholar
  37. Moorhouse, H. (1981) ‘The Significance of the Labour Aristocracy,’ in Social History, vol. 6, no. 2, May.Google Scholar
  38. Morgan, G. and Hooper, D. (1982) ‘Labour in the Woollen and Worsted Industry: A Critical Analysis of Dual Labour Market Theory’ in G. Day, et al., Diversity and Decomposition in the Labour Market (London: Gower).Google Scholar
  39. Musson, A. (1976) ‘Class Struggle and the Labour Aristocracy,’ in Social History, vol. 1, no. 3, October.Google Scholar
  40. Pelling, H. (1968) Popular Politics in Late Victorian Britain (London: Macmillan).Google Scholar
  41. Penn, R. (1983) ‘Trade Union Organisation and Skill in the Cotton and Engineering Industries in Britain 1850–1960,’ in Social History, vol. 8, no. 1, January.Google Scholar
  42. Reid, A. (1978) ‘Politics and Economics in the Formation of the British Working Class,’ in Social History, vol. 3, no. 3, October.Google Scholar
  43. Rex, J. (1980) ‘A Working Paradigm for Race Relations Research,’ in Ethnic and Racial Studies, January.Google Scholar
  44. Richards, J. F. (1981) ‘The Indian Empire and Peasant Production of Opium in the 19th Century,’ in Modern Asian Studies, vol. 15, no. 1.Google Scholar
  45. Saxton, A. (1971) The Indispensable Enemy: Labour and the Anti-Chinese Movement in California (Berkeley: University of California Press).Google Scholar
  46. Takaki, R. (1980) Iron Cages: Race and Culture in 19th Century America (London: Abhlone Press).Google Scholar
  47. Turner, H. (1962) Trade Union Growth, Structure and Policy (London: Allen & Unwin).Google Scholar
  48. Urry, J. (1981) ‘Localities, Regions and Social Class,’ in International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, vol. 5, no. 4.Google Scholar
  49. Wallerstein, I. (1979) The Capitalist World Economy (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press).Google Scholar
  50. Wood, S. (ed.) (1982) The Degradation of Work? (London: Hutchinson).Google Scholar
  51. Zeitlin, J. (1979) ‘Craft Control and the Division of Labour: Engineers and Compositions in Britain 1890–1930,’ in Cambridge Journal of Economics, vol. 3, no. 3.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© British Sociological Association 1985

Authors and Affiliations

  • Glenn Morgan

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations