At the national level an election can be described with some confidence. The principal actors are closely watched; if they say or do anything significant, the media usually record it. The stimuli that the voter receives from press conferences, from television and radio news stories about the rival speeches, statements, and walkabouts, and from party political broadcasts can be observed and — even though the survey evidence on their net impact is limited — they can, to some extent, be measured.
KeywordsEurope Tral Nial Banner Monopoly
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