Job Costing, Unit Costing, Process Costing and Joint Product Costing — ‘The Quartet’

  • W. Armand Layne


Each element ‘the quartet’ —job costing, unit costing, process costing and joint product costing —has distinguishing features. Job costing deals with discrete systems. When products are made continuously, a process costing system emerges. Unit costing is applicable to both systems. Process manufacturing creates other products which are called joint products. Joint products give rise to by-products.


Cost Accounting Joint Product Direct Labour Equivalent Production Joint Cost 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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  1. Amey, L. R. and Egginton, D. A. (1973) Management Accounting (Longman) ch. 14.Google Scholar
  2. Horngren, C. T. (1977) Cost Accounting: A Managerial Emphasis, 4th edn (Prentice-Hall) p. 588.Google Scholar
  3. ICMA (1974) Terminology of Management and Financial Accounťancy (ICMA) p. 21.Google Scholar
  4. Kohler, F. L. (1970) A Dictionary for Accounts, 4th edn (Prentice-Hall) p. 251.Google Scholar
  5. Matz, A. and Usry, M. F. (1980) Cost Accounting: Planning and Control, 7th edn (South-Western Publishing Co.) ch. 5.Google Scholar
  6. Walgenbach, P. H., Dittrich, N. E. and Hanson, E. I. (1977) Financial Accounting: An Introduction, 2nd edn (Harcourt, Brace Jovanovich) p. 544.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dr W. Armand Layne and Mr Colin Rickwood 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. Armand Layne
    • 1
  1. 1.Cave Hill CampusUniversity of the West IndiesWest Indies

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