Insular and Open Strategies for Enhancing Scientific and Technological Capacities: Indian Educational Expansion and its Implications for African Countries

  • Thomas Owen Eisemon


The newly industrialised countries of East and Southeast Asia, first Japan and then in succession Taiwan, Singapore, and Hong Kong, have provided demonstrations of ‘development’ in what was once regarded as the capitalist periphery. Whether these countries are still considered to be appendages of international capitalism or examples of autonomous development is not an issue here. Irrespective of the interpretations given their economic performance, lessons are being drawn for the less developed countries of Africa and Asia. Typically and with much oversimplication the growth rates of the newly industrialised countries are attributed to a mix of economic policies favouring openness to foreign investment, to imported technology and to a collaborative relationship between government and the private sector especially in export industries. Predictably the economic strategies of these countries are favourably compared with countries that espouse scientific and industrial self-reliance. The insularity of the rhetoric of self-reliance is contrasted with the ‘learning and copying’ approach to scientific and technological development practised in Meiji and modern Japan and in other newly industrialised countries. (See, for instance, Ronald Dore’s provocative essay in this volume.)


African Country Foreign Investment Technical Education Colonial Period Foreign Technology 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Ashby, E. (1966) Universities: British, Indian, African. Cambridge, Mass.Google Scholar
  2. Basu, A. (1974) Growth of Education and Political Development in India. Delhi.Google Scholar
  3. Eisemon, T. (1974) U.S. Educated Engineering Faculty in India. Bombay.Google Scholar
  4. Eisemon, T. (1982) Science in the Third World: Studies from India and Kenya. New York.Google Scholar
  5. Errunza, V. (1978) ‘Gains from Portfolio Diversification into Less Developed Countries’, Journal of International Business Studies, pp. 117–23.Google Scholar
  6. Frame, J. D., Narin, F. and Carpenter, M. P. (1977) ‘The Distribution of World Science’, Social Studies of Science, 7, pp 504–7.Google Scholar
  7. Gidengil, E. L. (1978) ‘Centres and Peripheries: An Empirical Test of Galtung’s Theory of Imperialism’, Journal of Peace Research, 15, pp. 51–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Government of India (1918) Report of the Indian Industrial Commission1916–1918. Superintendent of Government Printing, Calcutta.Google Scholar
  9. Heredia, R. (1979) ‘Structure and Performance of College Education in India: An Organizational Analysis of Arts and Science Colleges in Bombay’. Unpublished dissertation, University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  10. Hill, A. V. (1945) Scientific Research in India. Government of India, Simla.Google Scholar
  11. India, Department of Atomic Energy (1980) Annual Report 1979–80. Bombay.Google Scholar
  12. India, Ministry of Defence (1979) Report 1978–79. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  13. India, Ministry of Industry (1978) Report 1977–78. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  14. Indian Institute of Public Opinion (1980) Quarterly Economic Report, No. 98. Delhi.Google Scholar
  15. Mahanty, J. (1977) ‘Science in the Universities’, in B. R. Nanda (ed.), Science and Technology in India. Vikas, New Delhi (pp. 112–24).Google Scholar
  16. National Planning Committee (1940) Proceedings1938–40. K. T. Shah, Bombay.Google Scholar
  17. National Planning Committee (1948) General Education, Technological Education and Development Research. Bombay.Google Scholar
  18. Nayar, B. R. (1981) Indias Quest for Technological Independence. Montreal.Google Scholar
  19. Nayar, B. R. (1981) India and Technological Self-Reliance: The Results of Policy. Montreal.Google Scholar
  20. Rajagopalan, T. S. et al., (1969) The Directory of Scientific Research Institutions in India. New Delhi.Google Scholar
  21. Reserve Bank of India (1968) Foreign Collaboration in Indian Industry. Bombay.Google Scholar
  22. Reuber, G. L. (1973) Private Foreign Investment in Development. Oxford.Google Scholar
  23. SIPRI (1972) Resources Devoted to Military Research and Development: An International Comparison. Stockholm.Google Scholar
  24. Southall, R. (1974) Federalism and Higher Education in East Africa. Nairobi.Google Scholar
  25. UNESCO (1964) Outline of a Plan for Scientific Research and Training in Africa. Paris.Google Scholar
  26. UNESCO (1972) National Science Policy and Organization of Scientific Research in India. Paris.Google Scholar
  27. UNESCO (1980) Statistical Yearbook 1978–79. Paris (p. 789).Google Scholar
  28. University Grants Commission (1979) University Development in India: Basic Facts and Figures. New Delhi.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Martin Fransman and Kenneth King 1984

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Owen Eisemon

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations