Kabul is another world away from the rest of the country; the sole town which really merits the title of city, by its size and the sheer weight of the governmental presence; in Kabul every aspect of the state bureaucracy is concentrated, from ministries to the large education sector, with more than half of higher education places here too. Although the site is ancient, very little is left which is older than a century — a result partly of the burning of the great bazaar area by a British army in 1842, but also of the great expansion of Kabul as the central government gradually got power and wealth over the last decades. Much of the city has been built since the Second World War, in anarchic fashion, up steep hillsides, or along the roads leading out of the centre.


Sugar Burning Europe Transportation Income 


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  1. 1.
    Peter Levi, The Light Garden of the Angel King (1972) p. 36.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    V. Gregorian, The Emergence of modern Afghanistan (Stanford, USA, 1969) pp. 345–68.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    See L. Dupree, op. cit. (1973), ch. 22 and R.T. Akhramovich, Concerning the recent stages in Afghanistan’s social history (Moscow, 1967).Google Scholar
  4. 7.
    Nake Kamrany, Peaceful competition in Afghanistan (Washington, USA, 1969) p. 51.Google Scholar
  5. 11.
    L. Dupree, A note on Afghanistan, 1971, AUFS, 1971, p. 23.Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    See Dr Heider Dawar, Die Bedeutung der Zollpolitik (Berlin, 1975).Google Scholar
  7. 14.
    Maxwell Fry, The Afghan Economy (Brill, Leiden, 1974) p. 48, and for causes of idle capital for investment, ch. 8 of this volume.Google Scholar

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© Anthony Hyman 1984

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