The Warsaw Treaty Organization (WTO), or the Warsaw Pact, as it is more commonly known, is at once both the strength and the potential weakness of the Soviet-dominated socialist system in Eastern Europe. Whether one is to be awed by the quantitative and qualitative dimensions of this uncommon military alliance or be somehow comforted by its problems depends in part on what one wants to see. Both views are possible because the realities are both present — great strengths and great problems. In this chapter an attempt will be made to examine the Warsaw Pact in its own context and to assess its impact on Eastern Europe and the outside world. As with most assessments of the problems and prospects of this region, there will probably be more questions raised than answered and perhaps all that can be hoped for is a more sharpened focus on the context in which these questions — and answers — exist. The Warsaw Treaty Organization is not an alliance system in the sense of NATO or any other present or historical Western alliance system.1 It is from this premise that the Warsaw Pact will be examined here.


German Democratic Republic Military Force Political Diversity East European Country Polish Military 
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Notes and References

  1. 1.
    Ole R. Holsti, P. Terrence Hopmann, and John D. Sullivan, Unity and Disintegration in International Alliances ( New York: John Wiley, 1973 ).Google Scholar
  2. 3.
    Andrzej Korbonski, “The Warsaw Pact,” International Conciliation (May 1969) pp. 9–10.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    For a comparison of the two treaties, see Roman Kolkowicz (ed.), The Warsaw Pact: Report on a Conference on the Warsaw Treaty Organization ( Arlington, Virginia: Institute for Defense Analysis, 1969 ) Appendix D.Google Scholar
  4. 6.
    Malcolm Mackintosh, “The Evolution of the Warsaw Pact,” Adelphi Papers (No. 58, June 1969 ). Mackintosh believes that the Warsaw Pact became a more serious military organization after 1961.Google Scholar
  5. 6.
    Also, see Thomas W. Wolfe, Role of the Warsaw Pact in Soviet Policy (Santa Monica, California: Rand Corporation, March 1973 ). Wolfe examines the roles of the Warsaw Pact in 1955 and compares those to the roles as he sees them in 1973.Google Scholar
  6. 13.
    A. Ross Johnson, Soviet-East European Military Relations: An Overview ( Santa Monica, California: Rand Corporation, January, 1975 ) p. 2.Google Scholar
  7. 14.
    Richard F. Starr, The Communist Regimes of Eastern Europe: An Introduction ( Menlo Park, California: Hoover Institution on War, Revolution, and Peace, 1967 ) pp. 215–6.Google Scholar
  8. 18.
    Lawrence T. Caldwell, “The Warsaw Pact: Directions of Change,” Problems of Communism (September-October 1975) pp. 3–4.Google Scholar
  9. 19.
    John Erickson, Soviet-Warsaw Pact Force Levels ( Washington: United States Strategic Institute, 1976 ) p. 65.Google Scholar
  10. 22.
    V. D. Sokolovskiy, Military Strategy ( 3rd edition) (Menlo Park, California: Stanford Research Institute, 1971 ) pp. 409–10. Translation, analysis and commentary by Harriet Fast Scott.Google Scholar
  11. 23.
    Raymond L. Garthoff, “The Military Establishment,” East Europe (September 1965) pp. 14–15.Google Scholar
  12. 27.
    Foreign Broadcast Information Service (FBIS), Eastern Europe, Daily Report, 10 September 1968, pp. Fl–F2.Google Scholar
  13. 27.
    Also see Richard Lowenthal, “The Sparrow in the Cage,” Problems of Communism (November,–December 1968) p. 21.Google Scholar
  14. 28.
    H. Gordon Skilling, Czechoslovakia’s Interrupted Revolution (Princeton University Press, 1976) p. 720.Google Scholar
  15. 35.
    Edward Crankshaw, “Europe’s Reds: Trouble for Moscow,” The New York Times Magazine, 30 November 1975, p. 18.Google Scholar
  16. 36.
    Lawrence S. Kaplan, “NATO and the Warsaw Pact: 1955 and 1980,” in Robert W. Clawsen and Lawrence S. Kaplan (eds), The Warsaw Pact: Political Purpose and Military Means ( Wilmington: Scholarly Resources, 1982 ), pp. 67–91.Google Scholar
  17. 41.
    See Dale R. Herspring and Ivan Volgyes, “Political Reliability in the Eastern European Warsaw Pact Armies,” Armed Forces and Society, vol. 6, no. 2 (Winter 1980) pp. 272–96.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

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© Michael J. Sodaro and Sharon L. Wolchik 1983

Authors and Affiliations

  • Thomas Cason

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