Imaginative Sympathy: Hawthorne’s British Soulmate

  • Linden Peach

Abstract

As Emerson in Representative Men developed possibilities provided by Carlyle’s On Heroes, Hero-Worship and the Heroic in History, so Hawthorne in The Scarlet Letter (1851) pursued possibilities offered by the Waverley novels and especially by The Heart of Midlothian. Scholars have found that a wide variety of authors influenced Hawthorne, including colonial American writers, Spenser and seventeenth- and eighteenth-century British authors.1 They have attributed special importance to the influence of Bunyan’s Pilgrim’s Progress and Spenser’s allegory.2 But Scott’s influence upon Hawthorne has never been adequately discussed.

Keywords

Burning Dust Europe Amid Expense 

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Notes

  1. 01.
    According to H. Arlin Turner the list includes Cotton Mather, Walpole, Southey, Thomas Browne, Nathaniel Mather, ‘Hawthorne’s Literary Borrowings’, PMLA, 51 (June 1936), 543–62.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 02.
    The most important articles dealing with Spenser’s influence are Randall Stewart, ‘Hawthorne and The Faerie Queene’, Philological Quarterly, 12 (April 1933), 196–207 and Herbert A. Leibowitz, ‘Hawthorne and Spenser: Two Sources’, American Literature, 30, No. 4 (January 1959), 459–66.Google Scholar
  3. Herbert A. Leibowitz, ‘Hawthorne and Spenser: Two Sources’, American Literature, 30, No. 4 (January 1959), 459–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 03.
    I am indebted here to two works in particular: H. W. Boynton, Annals of American Bookselling, 1638–1850 (New York: Wiley, 1932).Google Scholar
  5. Henry A. White, Sir Walter Scott’s Novels on the Stage (London: Oxford University Press, 1927).Google Scholar
  6. 04.
    G. Harrison Orians, ‘The Romance Ferment After Waverley’, American Literature, 3 (January 1932), 408–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 05.
    James Fenimore Cooper, Notions of the Americans Picked Up By a Travelling Bachelor (London, 1828), 11, 142.Google Scholar
  8. 06.
    Richard Davis, Literature and Society in Early Virginia 1608–1840 (Baton Rouge: Louisiana State University Press, 1973), p. 236.Google Scholar
  9. 07.
    George Dekker, James Fenimore Cooper: The Novelist (London: Routledge and Kegan Paul, 1967).Google Scholar
  10. 08.
    George E. Hastings, ‘How Cooper Became A Novelist’, American Literature, 12 (March 1940), 20–51;CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 08.
    Susan Fenimore Cooper, The Cooper Gallery: Or, Pages and Pictures from the life of James Fenimore Cooper, with Notes (New York: Miller, 1865), p. 17.Google Scholar
  12. 09.
    Nathaniel Hawthorne, English Notebooks, ed. Randall Stewart (New York: Russell and Russell, 1962), p. 537.Google Scholar
  13. 11.
    Sir Walter Scott, Letters on Demonology and Witchcraft, addressed to J. G. Lockhart, Esq. (London: Murray, 1830), p. 2.Google Scholar
  14. 12.
    I am indebted here to G. Harrison Orians, ‘Scott and Hawthorne’s Fanshawe’, New England Quarterly, 2 (June 1938), 388–94.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 13.
    Douglas Grant, the only scholar who had drawn attention to a connection between Hawthorne’s The Scarlet Letter and Scott’s The Heart of Midlothian, observes only that both novels open with a dramatic technique that connects the present with the past in which the novel is set and that both Effie and Hester conceal the paternity of their child. Douglas Grant, ‘Sir Walter Scott and Nathaniel Hawthorne’, University of Leeds Review 8 (1963), 38–79;.Google Scholar
  16. Nathaniel Hawthorne, The Scarlet Letter, ed. Douglas Grant (London: Oxford University Press, 1965), pp. xv–xvi.Google Scholar
  17. 14.
    Alice Lovelace Cooke, ‘Some evidences of Hawthorne’s Indebtedness to Swift’, University of Texas Studies in English, 18 (July 1938), 140–62.Google Scholar
  18. 15.
    Nathaniel Hawthorne, The American Notebooks, ed. Claude M. Simpson (Ohio: Ohio State University Press, 1972), p. 242.Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Ann Marie McNamara, ‘The Character of Flame: The Function of Pearl in The Scarlet Letter’, American Literature, 27, No. 4 (June 1956), 537–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 19.
    Frederick Crews, The Sins of the Fathers: Hawthorne’s Psychological Themes (London: Oxford University Press, 1966), pp. 17–25.Google Scholar

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© Linden Peach 1982

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  • Linden Peach

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