Revolution without Socialism
  • Anthony Reid
Part of the Macmillan Asian Histories Series book series


We the people of Indonesia hereby declare Indonesia’s independence. Matters concerning the transfer of power and other matters will be executed in an orderly manner and in the shortest possible time.


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  1. 1.
    The primary sources for this episode are the following Indonesian memoirs: Sidik Kertapati, Sekitar Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945, 3rd ed. (Jakarta: Pembaruan, 1964) pp. 94–7;Google Scholar
  2. Adam Malik, Riwafat dan Perdjuangan sekitar Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia 17 Agustus 1945, rev. ed. (Jakarta: Widjaya, 1970) pp. 35–7; Sukarno, An Autobiography as told to Cindy Adams (Hong Kong: Gunang Agung, 1966) pp. 206–9;Google Scholar
  3. Mohammad Hatta, Sekitar Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 (Jakarta: Tintamas, 1970) pp. 33–7.Google Scholar
  4. It is described in Anthony Reid, The Indonesian National Revolution 1945–1950 (Hawthorn: Longman, 1974) p. 26,Google Scholar
  5. and Benedict Anderson, Java in a Time of Revolution, Occupation and Resistance (Ithaca: Cornell, 1972), pp. 71–3.Google Scholar
  6. 2.
    Nagazumi Akira, The Dawn of Indonesian Nationalism (Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies, 1972) pp. 27, 32.Google Scholar
  7. 4.
    J. S. Furnivall, Netherlands India (Cambridge: 1939) p. 401.Google Scholar
  8. 5.
    Onghokham, ‘The Residency of Madiun. Priyayi and Peasant in the Nineteenth Century’, (Yale University, PhD thesis, 1976) p. 143.Google Scholar
  9. 6.
    C. J. Hasselman, Algemeen Overzicht van de Uitkomsten van het Welvaart-Onderzoek Gehouden op Java en Madoera in 1904–1905 (’s-Gravenhage: Nijhoff, 1914) p. 115.Google Scholar
  10. 8.
    F. Buchler, ‘Land Hunger and the Growing Power of Regional Elites in Cirebon Regency, 1903–1930’, paper presented to Second Asian Studies Association of Australia Conference, Sydney, 1978.Google Scholar
  11. 9.
    D. W. Fryer and J. C. Jackson, Indonesia (London: Ernest Benn, 1977) p. 153.Google Scholar
  12. 10.
    Derived from Furnivall, Netherlands India, p. 348, and Oki Akira ‘Social Change in the West Sumatran Village’, (Australian National University, PhD Thesis, 1977) p. 64Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Richard Robison, ‘Capitalism and the Bureaucratic State in Indonesia; 1965–1975’, (Sydney University, PhD thesis, 1977) pp. 34–8 and 155.Google Scholar
  14. Matsuo Hiroshi, The Development of the Javanese Cotton Industry (Tokyo: Institute of Developing Economies, 1970) pp. 19–40.Google Scholar
  15. 13.
    These words, from the title of the collected letters of Raden Adjeng Kartini, are taken as a theme by Benedict Anderson in his perceptive essay on Dr Soetomo in Perceptions of the Past in Southeast Asia, eds. Anthony Reid and David Marr (Singapore: Heinemann Asia for the ASAA, 1980) pp. 219–48. On this theme see also Anthony Reid, ‘Heaven’s Will and Man’s Fault’: The rise of the West as a Southeast Asian dilemma, Flinders Asian Studies Lecture 6 (Bedford Park: Flinders University, 1975).Google Scholar
  16. 17.
    Ki Hadjar Dewantara, ‘Taal en Volk’, 1917, in ibid., p. 106.Google Scholar
  17. 19.
    In interview with H. J. Kiewiet de Jonge, 20 October 1932, in S. L. van der Wal (ed.), Het Onderwijsbeleid in Nederlands-Indie 1900–1940. Een Bronnenpublikatie (Groningen: J. B. Wolters, 1963) p. 537.Google Scholar
  18. 20.
    The best short survey of the rise of SI is in Bernhard Dahm, History of Indonesia in the Twentieth Century (London: Pall Mall Press, 1971) pp. 38–55.Google Scholar
  19. 21.
    Speech by Abdul Manap, 1920, quoted in Anthony Reid, The Blood of the People: Revolution and the End of Traditional Rule in Northern Sumatra (Kuala Lumpur: Oxford, 1979) p. 16.Google Scholar
  20. 23.
    Aliarcham, 1924, quoted in Ruth T. McVey, The Rise of Indonesian Communism (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1965) p. 263.Google Scholar
  21. 25.
    G. C. Allen and A. G. Donnithorne, Western Enterprise in Indonesia and Malaya (London: George Allen & Unwin, 1957) p. 288.Google Scholar
  22. 26.
    P. S. Gerbrandy, Indonesia (London: Hutchinson, 1950) p. 27.Google Scholar
  23. 27.
    Heather Sutherland, The Making of a Bureaucratic Elite: The Colonial Transformation of the Javanese Priyayi, Asia for the ASAA, (Singapore: Heinemann, 1979) p. 145.Google Scholar
  24. 28.
    Soetan Sjahrir, Out of Exile, (trans.) Charles Wolf (New York: John Day, 1949) p. 219.Google Scholar
  25. 29.
    Continuity and Change in Southeast Asia: Collected Journal Articles of Harry J. Benda (New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1972) p. 72. On this theme see also Anthony Reid ‘The Japanese Occupation and Rival Indonesian Elites: Northern Sumatra in 1942’, Journal of Asian Studies, XXXV, 1 (Nov. 1975), pp. 49–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 31.
    ‘Principles Governing the Administration of Occupied Southern Areas’, 20 November 1941, in Japanese Military Administration in Indonesia: Selected Documents, eds. H. J. Benda, J. K. Irikura and K. Kishi (New Haven: Yale University Southeast Asia Studies, 1965), p. 1.Google Scholar
  27. 39.
    Soeyatno Kartodirdjo, ‘Social and Political Changes in Surakarta after 1945’, RIMA 8, no. 1 (1974), p. 39.Google Scholar
  28. 41.
    Musso, 1948, cited in Ruth McVey, The Soviet View of the Indonesian Revolution (Ithaca: Cornell Modern Indonesia Project, 1957) p. 62.Google Scholar
  29. 43.
    This process is best described in Robison, ‘Capitalism and the Bureaucratic State in Indonesia: 1965–1975’, partly summarised in R. Robison, ‘Toward a Class Analysis of the Indonesian Military Bureaucratic State’, Indonesia, 25 (April 1978) pp. 18–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 44.
    Karl Jackson and Lucien Pye (eds.), Political Power and Communications in Indonesia (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1978)Google Scholar
  31. especially two articles on ‘Bureaucratic Polity’ by Karl Jackson. Ann Ruth Willner, ‘The neo-traditional accommodation to political independence: the case of Indonesia’, in L. Pye (ed.), Cases in Comparative Politics: Asia (Boston: Little, Brown, 1970).Google Scholar
  32. Harold Crouch, ‘Patrimonialism and Military Rule in Indonesia’, World Politics, XXXI. 4 (July 1979) pp. 571–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. For Weber’s concept see Max Weber, Economy and Society. An Outline of Interpretive Sociology (New York: Bedminster, 1968) pp. 231 ff;Google Scholar
  34. and for its modern application S. N. Eisenstadt, Traditional Patrimonialism and Modern Neo-Patrimonialism (London: Sage Publications, 1973).Google Scholar

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© Anthony Reid 1981

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