Advertisement

India

Independence and the Rich Peasant
  • Robin Jeffrey
Chapter
  • 7 Downloads
Part of the Macmillan Asian Histories Series book series

Abstract

‘I am the son of a peasant.’

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

  1. 1.
    Kewal L. Panjabi, The Indomitable Sardar (Bombay: Bharatiya Bhavan, 1962) pp. 43–4.Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    There is a vast literature on peasants and the differences among them. Hamza Alavi, ‘Peasants and Revolution’, in The Socialist Register (London: Merlin Press, 1965) pp. 241–77,Google Scholar
  3. and Eric R. Wolf, Peasant Wars of the Twentieth Century (London: Faber and Faber, 1973; 1st pubd, 1971) are starting points. The National Sample Surveys, published by the Cabinet Secretariat, have been compiling and analysing Indian agricultural statistics for nearly thirty years.Google Scholar
  4. One such table is in Angus Maddison, Class Structure and Economic Growth. India and Pakistan since the Moghuls (London: Allen and Unwin, 1971) p.106.Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    Ravinder Kumar, ‘The Rise of the Rich peasants in Western India’, in D. A. Low (ed.), Soundings in Modern South Asian History (London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson, 1968) pp. 25–58.Google Scholar
  6. 4.
    V. Shankar, My Reminiscences of Sardar Patel, vol. II (New Delhi: Macmillan, 1974) p.81.Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    P. D. Reeves, ‘The Politics of Order: “Anti-Non-Cooperation” in the United Provinces, 1921’, Journal of Asian Studies, XXV, 2 (Feb. 1966) p. 262.Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    T. B. Macaulay, Minute on Education, 2 Feb. 1835, in Christine Dobbin (ed.), Basic Documents in the Development of Modern India and Pakistan 1835–1947 (London: Van Nostrand Reinhold, 1970) p. 18.Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    B. B. Misra, The Indian Middle Classes. Their Growth in Modern Times (London: Oxford University Press for the Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1961) p. 304.Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    John R. McLane, Indian Nationalism and the Early Congress (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1977) p. 54.Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Dipesh Chakraborty, Communal Riots and Labour: Bengal’s Jute Millhands in the 1890s (Calcutta: Centre for Studies in Social Sciences, Occasional Paper no. 11, 1976) pp. 40–3.Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    B. R. Nanda, Gokhale. The Indian Moderates and the British Raj (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1977) p. 287.Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    Quoted in Bipin Chandra, Modern India (New Delhi: National Council of Educational Research and Training, 1977; 1st pubd, 1971) p. 213.Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sumit Sarkar, The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal, 1903–8 (New Delhi: People’s Publishing House, 1973) provides a lengthy account.Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    A. C. Bose, Indian Revolutionaries Abroad, 1905–22 (Patna: Bharati Bhawan, 1971) pp. 159–73.Google Scholar
  16. 17.
    M. K. Gandhi, An Autobiography or The Story of My Experiments With Truth (Ahmedabad: Navajivan Publishing House, 1966; 1st pubd, 1927) p. 337.Google Scholar
  17. 18.
    S. Gopal, British Policy in India, 1858–1905 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1965) p. 182, quoting Lansdowne, the Viceroy, to Cross, Secretary of State for India, 1 Jan. 1889.Google Scholar
  18. 19.
    J. H. Broomfield, Elite Conflict in a Plural Society: Twentieth-Century Bengal (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1968), p. 54;Google Scholar
  19. A. B. Keith, A Constitutional History of India, 1600–1935 (London: Methuen, 1936) pp. 229–32.Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    H. F. Owen, ‘Negotiating the Lucknow Pact’, Journal of Asian Studies, XXXI, 3 (May 1972) pp. 561–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 22.
    Jawaharlal Nehru, The Discovery of India (London: Meridian, 1951; 1st pubd, 1946) p. 336.Google Scholar
  22. 27.
    Judith M. Brown, Gandhi’s Rise to Power (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1972) p. 164.Google Scholar
  23. 30.
    Ibid., pp. 202, 221, 254–5, 265. See also Richard Gordon, ‘Non-Cooperation and Council Entry, 1919 to 1920’, in John Gallagher, Gordon Johnson and Anil Seal (eds.), Locality, Province and Nation (Cambridge University Press, 1973) pp. 443–73.Google Scholar
  24. 32.
    Jawaharlal Nehru, An Autobiography (London: Bodley Head, 1953; 1st pubd, 1936) pp. 65–6.Google Scholar
  25. 33.
    D. A. Low, ‘The Government of India and the First Non-Cooperation Movement, 1920–22’, Journal of Asian Studies, XXV, 2 (Feb. 1966) p. 257.Google Scholar
  26. 37.
    Gopal Krishna, The Development of the Indian National Congress as a Mass Organisation, 1918–23’, in Thomas R. Metcalf (ed.), Modern India (London: Collier-Macmillan, 1971) pp. 262–5. The full version of this paper is in the Journal of Asian Studies, XXV, 3 (May 1966) pp. 413–30.Google Scholar
  27. 38.
    Judith M. Brown, Gandhi and Civil Disobedience (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1977) pp. 9–12.Google Scholar
  28. 39.
    Panjabi, Indomitable Sardar, pp. 54–62; David Hardiman, ‘The Crisis of the Lesser Patidars: Peasant Agitations in Kheda District, Gujarat, 1917–34’, in D. A. Low (ed.), Congress and the Raj (London: Heinemann, 1977) p. 62;Google Scholar
  29. Ghanshyam Shah, ‘Traditional Society and Political Mobilization: the Experience of the Bardoli Satyagraha (1920–1928)’, Contributions to Indian Sociology (n.s.), 8 (1974) pp. 89–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 40.
    Krishnalal Shridharani, The Big Four of India (Delhi: Malhotra Brothers, 1951) pp. 81, 83.Google Scholar
  31. 45.
    Gyanendra Pandey, ‘A Rural Base for Congress: The United Provinces, 1920–40’, and Lance Brennan, ‘From One Raj to Another: Congress Politics in Rohilkhand, 1930–50’, both in Low (ed.), Congress and the Raj, pp. 214, 477. See also Gyanendra Pandey, The Ascendancy of the Congress in Uttar Pradesh, 1926–34 (New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1978).Google Scholar
  32. 47.
    Binay Bhushan Chaudhuri, ‘Agrarian Movements in Bihar and Bengal, 1919–39’, in B. R. Nanda (ed.), Socialism in India (Delhi: Vikas, 1972), p. 220. Pandey, ‘Rural Base’, p. 214.Google Scholar
  33. 59.
    Shankar, Reminiscences, vol. II, p. 20. See also Brown, Civil Disobedience, pp. 120, 290; and A. D. Gordon, Businessmen and Politics (Canberra: ANU South Asian History Section, 1977) pp. 228–9.Google Scholar
  34. 63.
    Eric Stokes, ‘The Return of the Peasant to South Asian History’, South Asia, 6 (Dec. 1976) p. 105.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 64.
    Max Harcourt, ‘Kisan Populism and Revolution in Rural India: The 1942 Disturbances in Bihar and East United Provinces’, in Low (ed.), Congress and the Raj, p. 342. Francis G. Hutchins, India’s Revolution, Gandhi and the Quit India Movement (Cambridge, Mass.: Harvard University Press, 1973) p. 235.Google Scholar
  36. 65.
    Proceedings of the All Parties National Convention (Allahabad: 1928), quoted in Uma Kaura, Muslims and Indian Nationalism. The Emergence of the Demand for India’s Partition, 1928–40 (Delhi: Manohar, 1977) p. 45.Google Scholar
  37. 68.
    Quoted in David Gilmartin, ‘Religious Leadership and the Pakistan Movement in the Punjab’, Modern Asian Studies, XIII, 3 (July 1979) p. 515.Google Scholar
  38. 69.
    Quoted in R. Coupland, The Future of India (London: Oxford University Press, 1943) p. 9.Google Scholar
  39. 70.
    Penderel Moon (ed.), Wavell, The Viceroy’s Journal (Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1977; 1st pubd, 1973) pp. 330–2.Google Scholar
  40. 71.
    Lt-Gen. Sir Frank Messervy, 24 Mar. 1947, quoted in Robin Jeffrey, ‘The Punjab Boundary Force and the Problem of Order: August 1947’, Modern Asian Studies, VIII, 4 (Oct. 1974) p. 495.Google Scholar
  41. 72.
    Keith Callard, Pakistan. A Political Study (London: Allen and Unwin, 1957) p. 67. See also Gilmartin, ‘Religious Leadership’, p. 517.Google Scholar
  42. 73.
    Patel to Ranjit Singh, 22 Feb. 1946, in Durga Das (ed.), Sardar Patel’s Correspondence, vol. II (Ahmedabad: Navajivan, 1972) pp. 325–6.Google Scholar
  43. 74.
    M. Lipton, ‘Urban Bias and Rural Planning in India’, in Henry Bernstein (ed.), Underdevelopment and Development: The Third World Today (Harmondsworth: Penguin, 1976; 1st pubd, 1973) p. 246. See also India Today, 1–15 Jan. 1978, p. 33.Google Scholar
  44. 75.
    George Rosen, Democracy and Economic Change in India (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1966) p. 116. See also pp. 196–7, 214–19, 240–1.Google Scholar
  45. 76.
    Stanley A. Kochanek, The Congress Party of India. The Dynamics of One-Party Dominance (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1968) p. 360.Google Scholar
  46. See also Myron Weiner, Party Building in a New Nation. The Indian National Congress (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1967) pp. 30–54, 459–81.Google Scholar
  47. 78.
    W. S. Neale, Economic Change in Rural India. Land Tenure and Reform in Uttar Pradesh, 1800–1955 (New Haven: Yale University Press, 1962).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Robin Jeffrey 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Robin Jeffrey

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations