A Garrison State in ‘Democratic’ Society

  • Paul Takagi
Part of the Critical Criminology series book series


This paper1 reports on a study of police officers killed in the line of duty and civilians killed by the police. The study was originated in 1971 in reaction to news reporting on the several mass media outlets at the local and national levels which focused on FBI statistics indicating police officers were being ‘assassinated’ at an alarming rate. A police reporter for an educational television station alarmed viewers with a report that 125 law enforcement officers had been killed in 1971, an increase of almost two and one-half times over 1963 when only 55 police officers were killed in all of that year. Police killings of citizens, however, were reported as isolated events. Although the death of civilians at the hands of police occurred from time to time, no news analyst attempted to show this as a national phenomenon.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. Beattie, Ronald H. (1968) California Peace Officers Killed 1960–66 ( Bureau of Criminal Statistics, Department of Justice, State of California, September ).Google Scholar
  2. Bristow, Allen P. (1963) ‘Police Officer Shootings: a Tactical Evaluation’, The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 54.Google Scholar
  3. Cardarelli, Albert P. (1968) ‘An Analysis of Police Killed by Criminal Action: 1961–1963’, The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 59.Google Scholar
  4. Goulden, Joseph (1970) ‘The Cops Hit the Jackpot’, The Nation (November).Google Scholar
  5. Hutchins, W. H. (1971) ‘Criminal Homicides of California Peace Officers, 1960–1970’, a report delivered before the California Homicide Investigators’ Conference ( Los Angeles, March ) 5.Google Scholar
  6. Knoohuizen, Ralph, Richard P. Fahey, and Deborah J. Palmer (1972) The Police and Their Use of Fatal Force in Chicago (Chicago Law Enforcement Study Group).Google Scholar
  7. President’s Commission on Law Enforcement and Administration of Justice (1967) Task Force Report: The Police ( Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office).Google Scholar
  8. Robin, Gerald D. (1963) ‘Justifiable Homicide by Police Officers’, The Journal of Criminal Law, Criminology, and Police Science, 54.Google Scholar
  9. Rusche, Georg and Otto Kirchheimer (1968) Punishment and Social Structure ( New York: Russell and Russell).Google Scholar
  10. Sorel, G. (1950) Reflections on Violence (Glencoe, Illinois: Free Press).Google Scholar
  11. Sweezy, Paul M., Harry Magdoff and Leo Huberman (1971) ‘Economic Stagnation and Stagnation of Economics’, Monthly Review, 22 (April).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Crime and Social Justice Associates 1981

Authors and Affiliations

  • Paul Takagi

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations