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Bargaining and Negotiation

  • Ian E. Morley
Chapter
Part of the Psychology for Professional Groups book series

Abstract

We expect that most of the people who read this chapter have some experience of industrial relations. Some will, no doubt, be engaged in the ‘art of negotiation’ themselves. Others may be contemplating the possibility of ‘collective bargaining’ with a certain amount of apprehension. Others still may simply be intrigued that ‘problem-solving’ groups or committees to which they belong turned into negotiation groups, and failed to solve the problems they were assigned. But very few people will require a definition of negotiation of the kind to be found in academic texts. Quite simply, negotiation occurs whenever people confer, or exchange ideas, to define or redefine the terms of their relationship.

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References

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Annotated reading

  1. Atkinson, G.M. (1975) The Effective Negotiator. London: Quest. One of the best of the ‘how to do it’ books. Atkinson introduces theoretical ideas in a clear, concise way. He also makes a number of extremely interesting suggestions designed to help negotiators set objectives based firmly on the realities of the power position between the sides.Google Scholar
  2. Batstone, E., Boraston, E. and Frenkel, S. (1978) Shop Stewards in Action: The organization of workplace conflict and accommodation. Emphasizes the importance of continuity in industrial relations. Batstone et al provide an excellent account of the nature of bargaining relationships. Further, they argue that one class of shop stewards, ‘leader stewards’, are particularly likely to establish strong bargaining relationships with members of management. For more on the organization of conflict see Batstone’s chapter in Stephenson and Brotherton (1979).Google Scholar
  3. Druckman, D. (ed.) (1977) Negotiations: Social psychological perspectives. Beverly Hills: Sage. Contains 13 chapters illustrating the kinds of problems psychologists take to be important in the study of negotiation. Some of the chapters are technical and require a background in psychology. Others may be read without detailed preparation. Overall the book gives a good idea of the ‘state of the art’ with respect to the ‘social psychology of negotiation’.Google Scholar
  4. Elcock, H. (1972) Portrait of a Decision. London: Eyre Methuen. It is a good idea to read a detailed case study of a negotiation, or a biography of a skilled negotiator. There are very few studies of industrial negotiation which provide detailed accounts of the ways in which decisions were made. Elcock provides an account of the Paris Peace Conference which led up to the Treaty of Versailles, since roundly condemned. A very interesting account, full of psychological insight, discussed in detail in my paper, ‘Preparation for negotiation: conflict, commitment and choice’ (in press).Google Scholar
  5. Lockhart, C. (1979) Bargaining in International Conflicts. New York: Columbia University Press. A very clear and well-written statement of the processes of information interpretation, influence and decisionmaking as they occur in negotiation groups. Lockhart emphasizes decisions which shape the general form negotiation will take.Google Scholar
  6. Miron, M.S. and Goldstein, A.P. (1979) Hostage. Oxford: Pergamon Press. An extremely interesting account of the skills involved in ‘hostage negotiations’. In many respects the book is a manual to be used in training the police. Readers may find it useful to compare and contrast hostage negotiation procedures with the conduct of industrial negotiation,Google Scholar
  7. Morley, I.E. (1980) Negotiation and Bargaining. In M. Argyle (ed.), Handbook of Social Skills, Volume 2. London: Methuen. Provides an account of negotiation skill. The chapter is organized around Snyder and Diesing’s model of negotiation. Examines processes of information interpretation, influence strategy and tactics, and decision making. Discusses some of the psychological factors which promote success in negotiation. Readers may be interested in some of the other social skills outlined in Argyle’s book.Google Scholar
  8. Morley, I.E. and Stephenson, G.M. (1977) The Social Psychology of Bargaining. London: George Allen & Unwin. Reviews the psychological factors which influence bargaining, defined as negotiation for agreement. There is a detailed review of laboratory research and a report of a programme of research designed to investigate Ann Douglas’ ideas. Includes transcripts of actual cases.Google Scholar
  9. Stephenson, G.M. (1978) Negotiation and collective bargaining. In P.B. Warr (ed.), Psychology at Work (2nd edn). Harmondsworth: Penguin. A concise, well-written account which places negotiation agreement in the context of a more general treatment of relations between groups.Google Scholar
  10. Stephenson, G.M. and Brotherton, C.J. (eds) (1979) Industrial Relations: A social psychological approach. Chichester: Wiley. A collection of 16 chapters reviewing the contribution of psychology to various aspects of industrial relations. Attempts to show that psychology is applicable to all levels of the ‘industrial relations system’. There are several general discussions of psychology and industrial relations, as well as chapters dealing with intergroup relations, the organization of conflict, pay comparisons, analyses of processes of bargaining and mediation, participation, and government psychologists and industrial relations specialists.Google Scholar
  11. Warr, P.B. (1973) Psychology and Collective Bargaining. London: Hutchinson. Provides an introduction to some of the general areas of psychology relevant to the study of industrial relations. The book is aimed at managers and trade union officials and is written in a straightforward, nontechnical style. Warr includes an interesting case study of pay and productivity negotiation covering a new wages structure in two industrial plants.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The British Psychological Society 1981

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  • Ian E. Morley

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