Antifungal Agents

  • David Edwards


In marked contrast to antibactieral chemotherapy there are very few agents available for the treatment of fungal infection. The reasons for this are mainly because the majority of fungal infections are not life-threatening to man, are far less common than bacterial infections, and, because they are eukaryotic pathogens, it is difficult to develop drugs which are specific for fungi without being concomitantly toxic to man. Because of these reasons the impetus for the development of new antifungal drugs is far less than that for antibacterials. However, the situation may change since fungal infection is increasing. This is due not only the increased use of broad-spectrum antibacterial antibiotics which enable fungi to infect secondarily, but also the use of corticosteroids and immunosuppressive drugs which produce the same effect.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

11.8 References and Further Reading

  1. Andreoli, T. E. (1974). The structure and function of amphotericin B-cholesterol pores in lipid bilayer membranes. Ann. N. Y. Acad. Sci., 235, 448–53CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cartwright, R. Y. (1974). Clotrimazole in the treatment of acute and ‘resistant’ vaginal candidiasis. Postgrad. med. J., 50, Suppl. 90–4Google Scholar
  3. Cartwright, R. Y. (1975). Antifungal drugs. J. antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 1, 141–62CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Clayton, Y. M. and Connor, B. L. (1973). Comparison of clotrimazole cream, Whitfield’s ointment and nystatin ointment for the topical treatment of ringworm infections, pityriasis versicolor, erythrasma and candidiasis. Br. J. Dermatol., 89, 297–303CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. de Nollin, S., Van den Bossche, H. and Borgers, M. (1974). The ultrastructure of Candida albicans after in vitro treatment with miconazole. Saboraudia, 12, 341–51CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Goldman, L. (1970). Griseofulvin. Med. Clin. North Am., 54, 1339–42Google Scholar
  7. Grisham, L. M., Wilson, L. and Benson, K. G. (1973). Antimitotic action of griseofulvin does not involve disruption of microtubules. Nature, Lond., 224, 294–6CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gull, K. and Trinci, A. P. J. (1973). Griseofulvin inhibits fungal mitosis. Nature, Lond., 244, 292–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Harold, F. M. Antimicrobial agents and membrane function. Adv. microbial Physiol., 4, 45–104Google Scholar
  10. Harrison, E. F. and Zygmunt, W. A. (1974). Haloprigin: mode of action studies in Candida albicans. Can. J. Microbiol., 20, 1241–5CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hermans, P. E. (1977). Antifungal agents used for deep-seated mycotic infections. Mayo Clin. Proc., 52, 687–93Google Scholar
  12. Holt, R. J. (1974a). Treatment of vulval candidiasis with 5-fluorocytosine. Br. med. J., iii, 523–4CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Holt, R. J. (1974b). Recent developments in antimycotic chemotherapy. Infections, 2, 95–107CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kinsky, S. C., Luse, S. A. and Van Deeman, L. L. M. (1966). Interaction of polyenes antibiotics with natural and artificial membrane systems. Fed. Proc. Fedn Am. Socs exp. Biol., 25, 1503–8Google Scholar
  15. Kinsky, S. C. (1967). Polyene antibiotics. In Antibiotics, Vol. 1 (D. Gottlieb and P. D. Shaw, eds). Springer-Verlag, Berlin, Heidelberg, New York, pp. 122–41CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Kinsky, S. C. (1970). Antibiotic interactions with model membranes. A. Rev. Pharmacol., 10, 119–42CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Kobayashi, G. S. and Medoff, G. (1977). Antifungal agents: recent developments. A. Rev. Microbiol., 31, 291–308CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Lampen, J. O. (1968). Interference by polyenic antifungal antibiotics, especially nystatin and filipin with specific membrane functions. In Biochemical Studies of Antimicrobial Drugs (B. A. Newton and P. E. Reynolds eds). Cambridge University Press, London, pp. 111–30Google Scholar
  19. Lampen, J. O., Arnow, P. M., Borowska, Z. and Laskin, A. L. (1962). Location and role of sterols at nystatin binding sites. J. Bact., 84, 1152–9Google Scholar
  20. Male, O. (1974). A double-blind comparison of clotrimazole and tolnaftate therapy of superficial dermatophytoses. Postgrad. med. J., 50, Suppl., 75–7Google Scholar
  21. Martin, J. F. (1977). Biosynthesis of polyene macrolide antibiotics. A. Rev. Microbiol., 31, 13–38CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. McGill, P. E., Sequeira, R., Jindani, A., Nguli, E. T., Forrester, A. T. T. and Fulton, W. F. M. (1969). 5-Fluorocytosine in the treatment of cryptococcal meningitis. East Afr. med. J., 46, 663–4Google Scholar
  23. Polak, A. and Scholar, H. J. (1975). Mode of action of 5-fluorocytosine and mechanisms of resistance. Chemotherapy, 21, 113–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Scheef, W., Symoens, J., Van Camp, K., Daniels, R. and Deheeuw-Delvigne, R. (1974). Chemotherapy of candidiasis. Br. med. J., i, 78–80CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Schönebeck, J. (1962). Studies on Candida infections of the urinary tract and on the antimycotic drug 5-fluorocytosine. Scand. J. Urol. Nephrol., Suppl. 11Google Scholar
  26. Shadomy, S. and Wagner, G. E. (1975). Antifungal agents. A. Repts. med. Chem., 10, 120–30Google Scholar
  27. Van den Bossche, H. (1974). Biochemical effects of miconazole on fungi. 1. Effects on the uptake and/or utilization of purines, pyrimidines, nucleosides, amino acids and glucose by Candida albicans. Biochem. Pharmacol., 23, 887–99CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Van den Bossche, H., Willemsens, G., Cools, W., Lauwers, W. F. J. and Jenne, L. L. (1978). Inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis on Candida albicans by miconazole. Curr. Chemotherapy, 1, 228–30Google Scholar
  29. Voigt, W. H. and Plempel, M. (1974). Electron microscopic studies on human pathogenic fungi. 1. Ultrastructural changes produced by clotrimazole in Candida albicans cells in animal experiments. Arzneimit.-Forsch., 24, 508–15Google Scholar
  30. Voigt, W. H. and Schnell, J. D. (1974). Electron microscopic studies on human pathogenic fungi. 2. Ultrastructural changes in Candida albicans cells in the human vaginal epithelium during treatment with clotrimazole. Arzneimit.-Forsch., 24, 516–23Google Scholar

Copyright information

© David Edwards 1980

Authors and Affiliations

  • David Edwards

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations