Theodolites are precision instruments used for measuring angles in the horizontal and vertical planes and are described according to the angle reading system incorporated in the instrument. Vernier theodolites are capable of being read to 20″ but have been superseded by modern optical reading theodolites of which many types are now available. The latter can, in some cases, be read to 0.1″.
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- M. A. R. Cooper, Modern Theodolites and Levels (Crosby Lockwood, London 1971).Google Scholar