Tracheal Systems

  • P. J. Mill
Part of the Macmillan Studies in Comparative Zoology book series (SCZ)


Tracheae are to be found only in members of two invertebrate phyla, the Arthropoda and the Onychophora, although similar respiratory tubules do occur in a few molluscs and crustaceans. They are primarily an adaptation to the terrestrial environment, but a number of species possessing them have become secondarily aquatic. Among the arthropods they are typically found in most insects, chilopods (centipedes), diplopods (millipedes) and symphylans, as well as in a number of arachnid orders.


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Copyright information

© P. J. Mill 1972

Authors and Affiliations

  • P. J. Mill
    • 1
  1. 1.The University of LeedsUK

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