Up to World War I, the movement of peoples was relatively free. Tourists did not need passports. People moved abroad in search of work, both seasonally, as in the movements of harvest workers across national borders and even oceans, and permanently. In early transatlantic migration, religious and political freedom was a prime cause. Later, immigrants fled from hunger (as in Ireland in 1847), from prison, or they went abroad seeking work. The wave of migration from 1880 to 1913 has been connected with the blow to peasant agriculture in Southern and Eastern Europe resulting from the collapse of wheat prices as well as with improvements in transport and settlement of new lands.
KeywordsMigration Europe Petroleum Income Turkey
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