• Robert R. Rusk


In the Jesuit system founded by Ignatius of Loyola2 the aristocratic tendency which characterises the educational systems with which we have already dealt, to some extent survives. Ignatius, a knight of noble birth, recognised that, for the crusade which the Company of Jesus was enrolled to wage, all available gifts of intellect and birth would be required; consequently it gave him peculiar satisfaction when the tests imposed on candidates for admission to the Society were passed by youths of noble birth.3 The Society devotes itself mainly, although not exclusively, to higher education, but for this restriction there is historical justification. Its aim was to arrest the disintegrating forces in the religious life of Europe,4 and to effect this it was necessary to attack the evils at their source, namely, in the universities, hence the Society’s concern for higher education.1


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  1. 2.
    For origin and history of the Society of Jesus see James Brodrick, The Origin of the Jesuits (Longmans, Green & Co., 1940), and The Progress of the Jesuits (1947). AlsoGoogle Scholar
  2. T. Corcoran, ‘Jesuit Education’, The Encyclopaedia and Dictionary of Education, edited by F. Watson (London: Sir Isaac Pitman, 1921), vol. ii, pp. 913–16.Google Scholar
  3. 4.
    It is unhistorical to assume that the Society was founded to combat Protestantism. It represents rather an original development within the Church itself. The Jesuit educational system is likewise a phase of the renaissance movement, and the general practice of the Jesuit schools corresponded with the practice of all Western and Central Europe of whatever religion. See R. Schwickerath, Jesuit Education: Its History and Principles (St Louis: B. Herder, 1903), p. 77Google Scholar
  4. F. Charmot, La Pédagogie des Jésuites (Paris: Spes, 1943), pp. 32–47.Google Scholar
  5. 1.
    The official publications of the Society of Jesus are The Spiritual Exercises, The Constitutions of the Society and the Ratio Studiorum. Various translations of The Spiritual Exercises are available. Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius of Loyola. Edited by O. Shipley (London, 1870). W. H. Longridge, The Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius of Loyola (London: A. R. Mowbray & Co., 1930). The Text of the Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius (London: Burns & Oates, 1880). Manresa or the Spiritual Exercises of St Ignatius, new edition (London: Burns & Oates, 1881).Google Scholar
  6. The Constitutiones Societatis Jesu. Romae, in aedibus Societatis Jesu 1558. Reprinted from the Original Edition: with an Appendix containing A Translation, and Several Important Documents (London: J. G. & F. Rivington, 1838) does not include the Declarations or Clarifications. The Appendix contains The First Approbation of the Society of Jesus by Paul III, 1540. A Translation of the Bull for the Effectual Suppression of the Order of Jesuits by Clement XIV, 1773. A Translation of the Bull for the Restoration of the Order of Jesuits by Pius VII, 1814. Saint Ignatius’ Idea of a Jesuit University by George E. Ganss (Milwaukee: Marquette University Press, 1956), includes Pt IV of the Constitutions of the Society of Jesus Translated from the Spanish of Saint Ignatius of Loyola, together with an account of the origin of the Constitutions and titles of the ten Parts. E. A. Fitzpatrick also included Pt IV of the Constitutions in St Ignatius and the Ratio Studiorum (New York and London: McGraw-Hill, 1933).Google Scholar
  7. The Ratio Studiorum et Institutiones Scholasticae Societatis Jesu in G. M. Pachtler, Monumenta Germaniae Paedagogica (Berlin, 1887–94), vol. v, contains the Latin text of the 1586 Ratio, and Latin texts and German translations of the 1599 and 1832 versions. The 1591 version was evidently not known to Pachtler (see Farrell, p. 308). T. Corcoran issued for academic use in University College, Dublin, the Renatae Litterae saeculo a Chr. XVI in Scholis Societatis Jesu Stabilitae containing portions of the three versions of the Ratio in Latin which he designated Ratio Studiorum Prima (1586), Ratio Studiorum Intermedia (1591), Ratio Studiorum Definitiva (1599). In 1938 the Bruce Publishing Company, Milwaukee, issued The Jesuit Code of Liberal Education: Development and Scope of the Ratio Studiorum by Allan P. Farrell. This traces the development of the Ratio and includes the 1832 version prepared after the Restoration of the Society.Google Scholar
  8. 1.
    T. Hughes, Loyola and the Educational System of the Jesuits (London: William Heinemann, 1892), pp. 67, 117. Cf. also Constitutions, Pt IV, ch. vii, § 3; ch. xv, § 4. The Ratio Studiorum, Reg. Praef. Stud. Infer. 9, enacts that no one shall be excluded because he is poor or of lowly station. The Reg. Corn. Prof. Class. Infer. 50, declares that the professor is to slight no one, to care as much for the progress of the poor pupil as of the rich. Cf. Fitzpatrick, p. 155.Google Scholar
  9. 3.
    Jouvancy’s Ratio Discendi et Docendi, first published in 1692, was reissued in 1703 — revised and adapted to meet the requirements of a decree passed by the General Assembly of the Order in 1696–7. French and German editions of Jouvancy’s Ratio exist, but no English translation. Hughes’s Loyola, pp. 163–6, gives an outline. For account of Joseph de Jouvancy, 1643–1719, see F. Charmot, La Pédagogie des Jésuites (Paris: Spes, 1943), pp. 559–63.Google Scholar
  10. 1.
    T. Corcoran, Studies in the History of Classical Teaching (London: Longmans, Green & Co., 1911), pp. 229–47. For Dury (1996–1680) see alsoGoogle Scholar
  11. G. H. Turnbull, Hartlib, Dury and Comenius (University Press of Liverpool, 1947). Dury was also the author of The Reformed School (1650); seeGoogle Scholar
  12. J. Duty, The Reformed School, edited by H. M. Knox (University Press of Liverpool, 1958).Google Scholar
  13. 1.
    T. Gomperz, Greek Thinkers, English translation (London, John Murray, 1901), vol. i, p. 43. 2 Pachtler, vol. v, p. 27.Google Scholar
  14. 1.
    T. Corcoran, ‘Jesuit Education’, The Encyclopaedia and Dictionary of Education, edited by Foster Watson (London: Sir Isaac Pitman, 1921), vol. ii, pp. 913–16. ‘The changes from the old Order are very considerable. Uniformity is now limited to principles, for national distinctiveness in education has become dominant. The loss of foundations and endowments makes “free education” rarely possible. Boarding-schools have become more common, in all lands, for secondary education; modern subjects are fully provided for, and taught concurrently with classics.’Google Scholar

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© R. R. Rusk 1969

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