• Robert R. Rusk


‘Pedagogy as a science’, says Herbart,2 ‘is based on ethics and on psychology. ‘The former points out the aim of culture, the latter the way, the means and the obstacles.’ Likewise in The Application of Psychology to the Science of Education: ‘Education is related to ethics by the conception of the aim which the educator has in view. By the consideration of means and obstacles it is forced back on psychology.’3 In Observations of a Pedagogical Essay he further explains: ‘I have for twenty years employed metaphysics, mathematics, and side by side with them self-observation, experience and experiments, merely to find the foundations of true psychological insight. And the motive for these not entirely effortless investigations has been, and is, in the main my conviction that a large part of the enormous gaps in our pedagogical knowledge results from lack of psychology.’4


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  1. 2.
    J. F. Herbart, Umriss pädagogischer Vorlesungen, translated by A. F. Lange under title of Outlines of Educational Doctrine (New York: The Macmillan Co., 1904), § 2.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Bemerkungen über einen pädagogischen Aufsatz (1814). J. F. Herbart’s Kleinere philosophischen Schriften (Leipzig: G. Hartenstein, 1842), vol. ii, pp. 15–28. Included in ABC of Sense Perception and Minor Pedagogical Works, translated by W. J. Eckoff (New York: D. Appleton, 1903), p. 72. The ABC, etc., is later throughout referred to simply as Minor Pedagogical Works.Google Scholar
  3. 1.
    G. F. Stout, Mind, vol. xiii (1888), pp. 321–38, 473–98, ‘The Herbartian Psychology’; vol. xiv (1889), pp. 1–26, ‘Herbart compared with the English Psychologists and with Beneke’; pp. 353–68, ‘The Psychological Work of Herbart’s Disciples’.Google Scholar
  4. 2.
    Lehrbuch zur Psychologie (first edition 1816), translated by Margaret K. Smith under title Textbook of Psychology (New York: D. Appleton & Co., 1891). Vol. iv of Herbart’s Collected Works in German (Langensala, 1891), pp. 205–436, contains the fuller second edition with sections differently numbered. 3 Outlines of Educational Doctrine, § 20.Google Scholar
  5. 3.
    R. Ulich, History of Educational Thought (New York: The American Book Co., 1945), P. 275. 4 §§ 95–106.Google Scholar
  6. 1.
    Cf. Sir W. Le Gros Clark, The Humanity of Man’, Presidential Address to the British Association, 1961: ‘The conception at one time current in psychology that mental experience can be separated into the rather sharply contrasted categories termed “cognitive” and “affective” has long since been recognised as misleading, for intellectual and emotional factors are so closely interlocked in any form of behaviour that they cannot be dissociated — even arbitrarily.’ See, nevertheless, p. 533 above.Google Scholar
  7. 3.
    Allgemeine Pädagogik aus dem Zweck der Erziehung abgeleitet, translated by H. M. and E. Felkin under title The Science of Education (London: Swan Sonnenschein, 1904). 4 In a reply to the author.Google Scholar
  8. 2.
    The term ‘repression’ plays a prominent role in psycho-analysis. Ernest Jones in Sigmund Freud: Life and Work (London: The Hogarth Press, 1953), pp. 309, 408, acknowledges its prior use by Herbart. Note that ‘repression’ with Herbart as with Freud results from conflict. It may be added that in his Textbook of Psychology Herbart has a section on dreams (2nd ed., § 216— German edition of Collected Works, vol. iv, pp. 411–12).Google Scholar
  9. 2.
    J. McV. Hunt, Intelligence and Experience (New York: The Ronald Press, 1961), p. 357.Google Scholar
  10. 3.
    An alternative term for ‘apperception mass’ is ‘mental background’, J. Adams, Exposition and Illustration, ch. iv (the whole chapter deals with ‘Mental Backgrounds’); in The Humanities Chart Their Course (Stanford University Press, California, 1945), p. 19Google Scholar
  11. Max Radin in ‘The Search for the Major Premise’ says: ‘I have preferred the metaphor of a cultural “matrix” to the more usual one of a background, because we think of a background as something fixed and dead and we picture living reality moving in front of it, to be sure, but quite detachable.’ ‘The concept “frame of reference” has been substituted and defined as the functionally related factors, both past and present, which operate at the moment to determine perception, judgment and affectivity.’ The Journal of Personality, vol. xviii, p. 370, June 1949, quoting M. Sherif and H. Cantril, The Psychology of Ego Involvement (New York: John Wiley & Son).Google Scholar
  12. 2.
    E.g. J. J. Findlay, Principles of Class Teaching (London: Macmillan & Co., 1907).Google Scholar
  13. 5.
    E. Boutroux, Education and Ethics. English translation by F. Rothwell (London: Williams & Norgate, 1913), p. x.Google Scholar

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© R. R. Rusk 1969

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