To-day, an economics book that contains no diagram is something of a surprise. This chapter is concerned with the algebra of diagrams and graphs. On the one hand, we shall find that many diagrams have properties which it would be hard to find except by an algebraic approach. On the other hand we shall find that many algebraic equations, and expositions, become simpler to handle and to understand when put into a graphical form. It is also through this study of algebraic geometry that we shall introduce certain ideas of importance in the calculus.
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