The ‘Living’ Constitution: Shadow and Substance
For an ontological evaluation of constitutions it is essential to recognize that the reality of a specific functional arrangement of powers depends to a large measure on the sociopolitical environment to which the pattern is applied. From its own experience the politically advanced Western world is apt to draw the conclusion that, once a constitutional order has been formally accepted by a nation, it is not only valid in the sense of being legal but also real in the sense of being fully activated and effective. If this is the case, a constitution is normative. To use a homely simile: the constitution is a suit made to measure and is actually worn. It is, however, an assumption that requires verification in every single case.
KeywordsEurope Income Stratification Expense Lution
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