The New Century

  • Peter Calvert
Part of the The Making of the Twentieth Century book series (MATWCE)


In 1900 there were twenty-one self-governing states in the Americas. By an odd fiction three of them, Canada, Newfoundland and the United States, all of them former British colonies, were (and are) regarded as being in some way different from the rest, which are collectively known in the English language under the generic term of ‘Latin America’. ‘Latin America’ is a purely artificial concept. The Latin Americans themselves do not often use the term.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. 1.
    For a geography of Latin America see Preston E. James, Latin America, 2nd ed. (New York, Odyssey Press, 1950).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    G. E. Marshall, ‘The Birth of the Mestizo in New Spain’, H.A.H.R. xix (May 1939) 161.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    See in particular the valuable Donald M. Dozer, Latin America, an Interpretive History (New York, McGraw-Hill, 1962)Google Scholar
  4. George Pendle, A History of Latin America (London, Penguin Books, 1964) is a good short introduction.Google Scholar
  5. 4.
    George C. Vaillant, The Aztecs of Mexico: Origin, Rise and Fall of the Aztec Nation (London, Penguin Books, 1950).Google Scholar
  6. 5.
    Sylvanus G. Morley, The Ancient Maya, 3rd ed. rev. (Stanford, Stanford University Press, 1956).Google Scholar
  7. 6.
    J. A. Mason, The Ancient Civilizations of Peru (London, Penguin Books, 1957).Google Scholar
  8. 7.
    Now old, but still of great literary merit are William Hickling Prescott, History of the Conquest of Mexico with a preliminary view of the ancient Mexican Civilisation and the life of the conqueror Hernando Cortez (London, Allen & Unwin, 1949) and History of the Conquest of Peru (London, Everyman’s Library, 1908).Google Scholar
  9. 8.
    Lewis H. Hanke, Aristotle and the American Indians; A Study in Race Prejudice in the Modern World (London, Hollis & Carter, 1959).Google Scholar
  10. 9.
    G. H. Haring, The Spanish Empire in America, rev. ed. (New York, Oxford University Press, 1952).Google Scholar
  11. 10.
    Lesley Byrd Simpson, The Encomienda in New Spain: the beginning of Spanish Mexico (Berkeley, University of California Press, 1966) pp. 210–11.Google Scholar
  12. 11.
    John Lynch, Spain under the Habsburgs, 2 vols (Oxford, Blackwell, 1964).Google Scholar
  13. 12.
    H. V. Livermore, A New History of Portugal (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1966).Google Scholar
  14. 13.
    R. A. Humphreys, The Evolution of Modern Latin America (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1946).Google Scholar
  15. 14.
    Wendell G. Schaeffer, ‘The Delayed Cession of Spanish Santo Domingo to France, 1795–1801’, H.A.H.R. xxix, 1 (February 1949) 46.Google Scholar
  16. 15.
    F.-P. Renaut, La question de la Louisiane, 1796–1806 (Paris, Édouard Champion, n.d.).Google Scholar
  17. 16.
    R. A. Humphreys, Liberation in South America, 1806–1827; the career of James Paroissien (London, Athlone Press, 1952).Google Scholar
  18. 17.
    Raymond Carr, Spain 1808–1939 (Oxford, Clarendon Press, 1966).Google Scholar
  19. 18.
    Ironically, one of the few easily accessible statements is Karl Marx in New Tork Daily Tribune, 24 November 1854, quoted in Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, Revolution in Spain (London, Lawrence & Wishart, 1939).Google Scholar
  20. 19.
    Gerhard Masur, Simón Bolívar (Albuquerque, University of New Mexico Press, 1948).Google Scholar
  21. 20.
    H. G. Warren, Paraguay, An Informal History (Norman, University of Oklahoma Press, 1949) pp. 142–56.Google Scholar
  22. 21.
    John Street, Artígas and the Independence of Uruguay (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1959).Google Scholar
  23. 22.
    Simon Collier, Ideas and Politics of Chilean Independence 1808–1833 (Cambridge, Cambridge University Press, 1967).Google Scholar
  24. 23.
    Oliveira Lima, O Movimento da Independência, O Imperio Brasiliero (1821–1889), 2nd ed. (São Paulo, Ediçoes Melhoramentos, 1928).Google Scholar
  25. 24.
    H. W. V. Temperley, The Foreign Policy of Canning, 1822–1827; England, the neo-holy alliance and the new world (London, Bell, 1925) p. 131–37Google Scholar
  26. Dexter Perkins, A History of the Monroe Doctrine, rev. ed. (London, Longmans, 1960) gives the principal United States interpretation.Google Scholar
  27. 25.
    R. A. Humphreys, ‘Latin America, The Caudillo Tradition’, in Michael Howard, ed., Soldiers and Governments. Nine Studies in civil-military relations (London, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1957) p. 151.Google Scholar
  28. 26.
    Luis Galdames, A history of Chile, trans, and ed. I. J. Cox (New York, Russell & Russell, 1964)Google Scholar
  29. L. W. Bealer, ‘Juan Manuel de Rosas’, in A. Curtis Wilgus, ed., South American Dictators during the First Century of Independence (New York, Russell & Russell, 1963)Google Scholar
  30. Otis A. Singletary, The Mexican War (Chicago, University of Chicago Press, 1960).Google Scholar
  31. 27.
    Clements R. Markham, The War between Peru and Chile, 1879–1882 (London, Sampson Low, Marston & Co., n.d.).Google Scholar
  32. 28.
    P. H. Box, The Origins of the Paraguayan War (Urbana, University of Illinois Press, 1929, Studies in the Social Sciences 15).Google Scholar
  33. 29.
    J. M. Henao and G. Arrubla, History of Colombia, trans, and ed. J. F. Rippy (Chapel Hill, University of North Carolina Press 1938) is the most complete account in English.Google Scholar
  34. 30.
    Franklin D. Parker The Central American Republics (London, Oxford University Press for Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1964).Google Scholar
  35. 31.
    Charles Allen Smart, Viva Juárez, a biography (London, Eyre & Spottiswoode, 1964)Google Scholar
  36. Ralph Roeder, Juárez and his Mexico, 2 vols (New York, Viking Press, 1947).Google Scholar
  37. 32.
    Aníbal Pinto Santa Cruz, Chile, un caso de desarrollo frustrado (Santiago, Editorial Universitaria, 1962) pp. 14 ff.Google Scholar
  38. 33.
    Leland Hamilton Jenks, The Migration of British Capital to 1875 (New York, Knopf, 1927) pp. 44–9, 63.Google Scholar
  39. 34.
    Watt Stewart, Henry Meiggs, Yankee Pizarro (Durham, N.C., Duke University Press, 1946).Google Scholar
  40. 35.
    e.g. Arthur P. Whitaker, Argentina (Englewood Cliffs, N.J., Prentice-Hall, 1964)Google Scholar
  41. George Pendle, Argentina, 2nd ed. (London, Oxford University Press for Royal Institute of International Affairs, 1961).Google Scholar
  42. 36.
    Frederick B. Pike, Chile and the United States, 1880–1962; the emergence of Chile’s social crisis and the challenge to United States diplomacy (Notre Dame, University of Notre Dame Press, 1963) pp. 34–8, cf. pp. 81–5.Google Scholar
  43. 37.
    Stephen Clissold, Latin America, A cultural outline (London, Hutchinson University Library, 1965).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Peter Calvert 1969

Authors and Affiliations

  • Peter Calvert

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations