Official Development Assistance (ODA) Programme

  • Nguyen Khac Thanh


Before 1991, Vietnam received official development assistance (ODA) from two main sources: countries under the COMECON (which essentially were the former USSR, and Eastern European countries), and capitalist countries such as Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway, India, Kuwait, for example. The total amount of ODA received up to 1991 was US$21.150 billion. Additionally there was US$1.6 billion from other multilateral finance sources (such as the IMF, ADB, WB, for example). A considerable part of ODA and multilateral finance funds was received by the South Vietnam administration and noted down in the debt accounts of the reunified Vietnam after 1975.


Asian Development Bank World Bank Capital Fund World Debt Table Versus Power Transmission 
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  1. Communist Magazine, April 1994.Google Scholar
  2. Decree No. 20/CP on 15 March 1994 and Statute of Management and Use of ODA, Office of the Government of Vietnam.Google Scholar
  3. International Monetary Fund (1995) World Economic Outlook, October.Google Scholar
  4. World Bank, World Development Report: 1992, 1993, 1994.Google Scholar
  5. World Bank, World Debt Tables 1994–1995.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nguyen Khac Thanh

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