Official Development Assistance (ODA) Programme
Before 1991, Vietnam received official development assistance (ODA) from two main sources: countries under the COMECON (which essentially were the former USSR, and Eastern European countries), and capitalist countries such as Sweden, Finland, Denmark, Norway, India, Kuwait, for example. The total amount of ODA received up to 1991 was US$21.150 billion. Additionally there was US$1.6 billion from other multilateral finance sources (such as the IMF, ADB, WB, for example). A considerable part of ODA and multilateral finance funds was received by the South Vietnam administration and noted down in the debt accounts of the reunified Vietnam after 1975.
KeywordsSugar Rubber Income Malaria Cane
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