Part A: The Skeleton
Although some bone lesions have a purely local pathology, disorders of the skeleton, as of the skin, frequently reflect a more widespread pathological process. In some deformities, such as those caused by infantile rickets, the systemic disorder is a thing of the past, the only remaining evidence being skeletal changes. On the other hand, a primary bone disease may give rise to systemic effects; for example, extensive Paget’s disease of bone can cause a profound hemodynamic disturbance leading to high-output congestive cardiac failure. Excluding malignant tumors, skeletal disorders that are not part of a primary systemic disease would usually have little effect by themselves on longevity unless there was anatomical interference with vital structures, such as pressure effects on nervous tissue or on the heart or lungs.
KeywordsDepression Adenoma Influenza Income Tuberculosis
Medical Impairment Study 1983.
Vol 1. Boston: Society of Actuaries and Association of Life Insurance Medical Directors of America, 1986.Google Scholar
Harrison JE. Osteoporosis: new ideas for an old problem. Trans Assoc Life Ins Med Dir Am
1986; 70: 53–71.Google Scholar
Duursma SA. Osteoporosis. Trans Assoc Life Ins Med Dir Am
1989; 73: 115–20.Google Scholar
Paterson CR, Ogston SA, Henry RM. Life expectancy in osteogenesis imperfecta. BMJ
1996; 312: 351.PubMedCentralCrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Ratcliffe AHC. J Bone Joint Surg
1967; 49B: 102.Google Scholar
Nachemson A. A long term follow-up study of non-treated scoliosis. Acta Orthop Scand
1968; 39: 456.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Nilsonne U, Lundgren K-D. Long term prognosis in idiopathic scoliosis. Acta Orthop Scand
1968, 39: 456.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
1951 Impairment Study
. New York: Society of Actuaries, 1954.Google Scholar
Singer RB, Levinson L. Medical Risks: patterns of mortality and survival
. Lexington: DC Heath, 1976.Google Scholar
Lew EA, Gajewski J (eds). Medical Risks: trends in mortality by age and time elapsed
. Vol 2. New York: Praeger, 1990.Google Scholar
Schrader H et al.
Natural evolution of late whiplash syndrome outside the medicolegal context. Lancet
1996; 347: 1207–11CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Williams R, Westmorland M. Occupational cumulative trauma disorders of the upper extremity. J Occup Med
1994; 48: 411–20.Google Scholar
Yu ITS, Wong TW. Musculoskeletal problems among VDU workers in a Hong Kong bank. Occup Med
1996; 46: 275–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hopkins A. The social recognition of repetition strain injuries: an Australian/American comparison. Soc Sci Med
1990; 30: 365–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Moldofsky H et al.
Musculoskeletal symptoms and non- REM sleep disturbance in patients with ‘fibrositis syndrome’ and healthy subjects. Psychosom Med
1975;31: 341–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Yunus MB et al.
Primary fibromyalgia (fibrositis): clinical study of 50 patients with matched normal controls. Semin Arthritis Rheum
1981; 11: 151–71.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Wolfe F and the Vancouver Fibromyalgia Consensus Group. The fibromyalgia syndrome: a consensus report on fibromyalgia and disability. J Rheumatol
1996; 23(3): 534–37.Google Scholar
Wolfe F et al.
The American College of Rheumatology 1990 criteria for the classification of fibromyalgia: report of the Multicenter Criteria Committee. Arthritis Rheum
1990; 33: 160–72.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Burckhardt CS, Clark SR, Bennett RM. The Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire: development and validation. J Rheumatol
1991; 18(5): 728–33.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Stanton-Hicks M et al.
Reflex sympathetic dystrophy: changing concepts and taxonomy. Pain
1995; 63: 127–33.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
Poplawski ZJ, Wiley AM, Murray JF. Post traumatic dystrophy of the extremities: a review and trial of treatment. J Bone Joint Surg AM
1983; 65: 642–54.PubMedGoogle Scholar
Ide J et al.
Quantitative evaluation of sympathetic nervous system dysfunction in patients with reflex sympathetic dystrophy. J Hand Surg
1997; 22B: 102–6.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
Hanna MH, Peat SJ. Ketanserin in reflex sympathetic dystrophy: a double blind placebo controlled cross-over trial. Pain
1989; 38: 145–50.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 2000