Peptides and Proteins

  • A. T. Florence
  • D. Attwood


An increasing proportion of the pharmaceutical armamentarium will in future be composed of peptides and proteins, whether natural or synthetic in origin or, more likely, produced by recombinant DNA technology. Most peptides and proteins are not absorbed to any significant extent by the oral route and most available formulations of protein pharmaceuticals are therefore parenteral products for injection or inhalation (Table 11.1). The object of this chapter is to provide some background for the appreciation of the pharmaceutics of proteins and peptides as therapeutic entities. From an understanding of the nature of amino acids and their physical properties comes an appreciation of the physical nature and properties of polymerised amino acids – peptides, polypeptides and proteins, defined below. The solution properties of proteins in simple and complex media should be understood, together with the factors affecting the stability of proteins in solution. Problems in the formulation of proteins to be overcome will then become clearer.


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Further reading

  1. R. Oliyar and V. J. Stella. 'Prodrugs of peptides and proteins for improved formulation and delivery.' Ann. Rev. Pharmacol. Toxicol. 32, 521 (1993)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
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  3. J. L. Cleland, M. F. Powell and S. J. Shire. 'The development of stable protein formulations: a close look at protein aggregation, deoxidation and oxidation.' Crit. Rev. Therap. Drug Carrier Systems 10, 307 (1993)Google Scholar


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Copyright information

© A. T. Florence and D. Attwood 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. T. Florence
    • 1
  • D. Attwood
    • 2
  1. 1.The School of PharmacyUniversity of LondonUK
  2. 2.School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of ManchesterUK

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