Environmental Principles

  • John Alder
  • David Wilkinson
Part of the Macmillan Law Masters book series (MLM)


In this chapter we examine the role and content of general principles in environmental law. We shall limit our attention to the following principles which inform much of environmental law:
  • the precautionary and preventative principles;

  • the polluter pays principle (PPP).


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Further Reading

  1. Cameron, J. and Aboucher, J. (1991) The Precautionary Principle: a Fundamental Principle of Law and Policy. Boston College International and Comparative Law Review, xiv(1), 1–27.Google Scholar
  2. Cross, F.B. (1996) Paradoxical Perils of the Precautionary Principle. Washington and Lee Law Review, 53 (3), 851–925.Google Scholar
  3. Elworthy, S. and Holder J. (1997) Environmental Protection, Text and Materials (London: Butterworths), pp. 154–64.Google Scholar
  4. Faber, M., Manstetten, R. and Proops, J.L.R. (1992) Humankind and the Environment: An Anatomy of Surprise and Ignorance. Environmental Values, 1, 217–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Freestone, D. (1991) The Precautionary Principle. In R.R. Churchill and D. Freestone (eds) International Law and Global Climate Change.Google Scholar
  6. Freestone, D. and Hey, E. (eds) (1996) The Precautionary Principle and International Law. The Challenge of Implementation (The Hague: Kluer).Google Scholar
  7. Fullem, G.D. (1995) The Precautionary Principle: Environmental Protection in the Face of Scientific Uncertainty. Willamette Law Review, 31 (2), 495.Google Scholar
  8. Gullet, W. (1997) Environmental Protection and the Precautionary Principal: A Response to Scientific Uncertainty in Environmental Management. Environmental and Planning Law Journal, 14 (1), 52–69.Google Scholar
  9. Gundling, L. (1990) The Status in International Law of the Principle of Precautionary Action. International Journal of Estuarine and Coastal Law, 5, 23–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hey, E. (1992) The Precautionary Concept in Environmental Law and Policy: Institutionalizing Caution. The Georgetown International Environmental Law Review, 4, 303–18.Google Scholar
  11. Kuhlman, W. (1997) Can the Precautionary Principle Protect Us from Imperial Ecology? Wild Earth, 7 (3), 67.Google Scholar
  12. McIntyre, O. and Mosedale, T. (1997) The Precautionary Principle as a Norm of Customary International Law. Journal of Environmental Law, 9 (2), 221–41.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. O’Riordan, T. and Cameron, J. (1994) Interpreting the Precautionary Principle (London: Earthscan).Google Scholar
  14. O’Riordan, T. and Jordan, A. (1995) The Precautionary Principle in Contemporary Environmental Politics. Environmental Values, 4, 191–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Shere, M.E. (1995) The Myth of Meaningful Environmental Risk Assessment. Harvard Environmental Law Review, 19 (2), 409–92.Google Scholar
  16. Tromans, S. (1995) High Talk and Low Cunning: Putting Environmental Principles into Legal Practice. Journal of Planning and Environment Law, September, 779–96.Google Scholar
  17. Walton, W., Ross-Robertson, A. and Rowan-Robinson, J. (1995), The Precautionary Principle and the UK Planning System. Environmental Law and Management, February, 35–40.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© John Alder and David Wilkinson 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • John Alder
    • 1
  • David Wilkinson
    • 2
  1. 1.Newcastle Law SchoolUniversity of NewcastleUK
  2. 2.School of LawKeele UniversityUK

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