Changing External Dimension: the EC Takes the Lead

  • Holly Wyatt-Walter
Part of the St Antony’s Series book series


The crumbling of the Berlin Wall on 9 November 1989 was both the culmination of previous change in the USSR and Eastern Europe and the inauguration of a new period of change for the whole of Europe. The euphoria in Berlin as East and West met at the Brandenburg Gate was only possible because of the previous five years of perestroika and the activities of Mikhail Gorbachev. In this sense the end of the cold war started in 1985 and only reached fruition in 1989.


Member State Security Policy Monetary Union Internal Integration Political Union 
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© Andrew Wyatt-Walter 1997

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  • Holly Wyatt-Walter

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