The Islamic Movement in Israel

  • Alisa Rubin Peled


The establishment of Israel in 1948 led to the expulsion of most Palestinian Muslims from their ancestral homeland to neighbouring Arab countries. The remaining Palestinian Muslims were living as minorities, with little hope of asserting their rights. The situation changed with the annexation of further Arab/Palestinian territories by Israel in 1967 — an event which also coincided with a substantial rise in the Arab population after the Israeli occupation of Arab lands.


Muslim Community Municipal Election Muslim Brotherhood Israeli Government Islamic Movement 
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  1. 1.
    I have adopted Yvonne Haddad’s use of the term Islamist, a translation of al-Islamiyyun, the current self-designation of the various Islamic groups in the Arab world, including the Muslim Brotherhood and its offshoots. See Yvonne Haddad, ‘Islamists and the “Problem of Israel”: the 1967 Awakening’, Middle East Journal, 46 (Spring 1992) p. 266.Google Scholar
  2. 4.
    Philadelphia Inquirer, 6 September 1989, as quoted in Issam Aburaiya, ‘Developmental Leadership: The Case of the Islamic Movement in Umm al-Fahim, Israel’, Master’s thesis, Clark University, 1991, p. 106.Google Scholar
  3. 5.
    Thomas Mayer, ‘Islamic Resurgence among the Arabs in Israel’ (Givat Haviva, 1986) p. 4. (Mimeographed.)Google Scholar
  4. 11.
    Don Peretz, Intifada (Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1990) p. 104. Hamas is an acronym for the Islamic Resistance Movement and means ardour or strength in Arabic. Its leadership derives from both the Muslim Brothers and the Islamic Jihad.Google Scholar
  5. 20.
    Amina Minns and Nadia Hijab, Citizens Apart (London: I. B. Tauris, 1990) p. 19.Google Scholar
  6. 22.
    Reuven Paz, ‘The Islamic Movement in Israel and the Municipal Elections of 1989’, Jerusalem Quarterly, 53 (Winter 1990) p. 12.Google Scholar
  7. 23.
    Thomas Mayer, ‘Islamic Resurgence Among the Arabs in Israel’, p. 52. The number of mosques in Israel has tripled since 1967.Google Scholar
  8. 30.
    Binyamin Nueberg, Government and Politics in Israel (Hebrew) (Tel Aviv: Open University, 1991) p. 91.Google Scholar
  9. 34.
    Ibrahim Malik, The Islamic Movement in Israel: Between Adherence to the Sources and the Refuge of Pragmatism (Hebrew) (Givat Haviva: Institute of Arabic Studies, 1990) p. 3.Google Scholar
  10. 35.
    Sarah Ozack-Lazar and Riad Kabaha, The Arabic Press in Israel on the Madrid Peace Conference (Givat Haviva: Institute for Arabic Studies, 1991) p. 23.Google Scholar
  11. 38.
    For more on this debate, see Institute for Peace Research at Givat Haviva, Islam and Peace (Hebrew) (Givat Haviva: Institute for Arabic Studies, 1990) p. 15.Google Scholar
  12. 39.
    Sarah Ozack-Lazar and Asa’d Ghanem, Autonomy for the Arabs in Israel: An Initial Discussion (Givat Haviva: Institute for Arabic Studies, 1990) p. 15.Google Scholar
  13. 41.
    Nadim Rouhana, ‘The Political Transformation of the Palestinians in Israel: From Acquiescence to Challenge’, Journal of Palestine Studies, 18 (Spring 1989) p. 50. Rouhana argues that Palestinisation precludes family or religious loyalties as a basis of national political activity.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 49.
    Zeev Schiff and Ehud Ya’ari, Intifada, translated and edited by Ina Friedman (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1990) p. 223.Google Scholar
  15. 65.
    For more information on the controversial issue of Israeli policy towards the Palestinian waqf, see Michael Dumper, ‘Muslim Institutions and the Israeli State; Muslim Religious Endowments (Waqfs) in Israel and the Occupied Territories, 1948–1987’, Ph.D. dissertation, University of Exeter, 1991. Dumper argues that Israel’s constant policy objective has been to acquire land and to constrain Palestinian political aspirations.Google Scholar
  16. 69.
    Under the British Mandate, the Supreme Muslim Council, under the leadership of Haj Amin Al-Husayni, controlled waqf properties. After the establishment of Israel in 1948, the Custodian of Absentee Property assumed control of waqf properties which amounted to hundreds of dunams of land and extensive municipal property. In 1954, the government promulgated a law to confiscate agricultural lands which had formerly belonged to the waqf. In 1965, the government began the process of returning the waqf to Muslim hands. See Alexander Bligh, Israeli Arabs — the Effort for Equality: Policy Suggestions (Jerusalem: Office of the Advisor to the Prime Minister for Arab Affairs, 19 August 1992) p. 30.Google Scholar

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© Palgrave Macmillan, a division of Macmillan Publishers Limited 1994

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  • Alisa Rubin Peled

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