Instinct and learning

  • Tony Malim
  • Ann Birch


As suggested by Darwin’s theory, discussed in the introduction to this part, adaptation will occur over time, with the result that new species will evolve and existing species will adapt and change, in order to obtain optimum advantage from changing environments; that is to say, to have the greatest chance for genes to survive into succeeding generations. This adaptation of a species over time, by natural selection, is called phylogenetic adaptation.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Further reading

  1. Hinde, R.A. (1966). Animal Behaviour. London: McGraw-Hill. A detailed account of animal behaviour from a biological standpoint.Google Scholar
  2. Krebs, J.R. and Davies, N.B. (1997). An Introduction to Behavioural Ecology, 3rd edn. Oxford: Blackwell. An up-to-date text on behavioural ecology.Google Scholar
  3. Lea, S.E.G. (1984). Instinct, Environment and Behaviour. London: Methuen. This is a very readable introduction to the study of animal behaviour, which takes a broadly sociobiological approach.Google Scholar
  4. Manning, A. and Dawkins, M.S. (1992). Animal Behaviour, 4th edn. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. This book takes a broadly biological approach and links ethology with comparative psychology and physiology. An updated version of a key text in this area.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Tony Malim and Ann Birch 1998

Authors and Affiliations

  • Tony Malim
  • Ann Birch

There are no affiliations available

Personalised recommendations